bittersweet nightshade USDA PLANTS Symbol: SODU
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Vines Shrub or Subshrub
Solanum dulcamara L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Solanales: Solanaceae
Synonym(s): climbing nightshade, blue nightshade, European bittersweet, fellenwort, woody nightshade
Native Range: Eurasia

Bittersweet nightshade is a perennial plant native to Eurasia. Plants can reach up to 6.6 ft. (2 m) tall, either erect or clambering. Leaves are petiolate, alternate, 3 lobed (upper part of the stem), acuminate and up to 3.1 in. (8 cm) long. Flowering occurs in May to November, when purple flowers develop. Petals are recurved and up to 0.4 in. (9 mm) long. Stamens (5) are bright yellow and fused together around the stigma. Mature fruits are red, shiny, 0.4 in. (1 cm) long berries. Plants invade thickets, fence rows, pond margins, low woods and roadsides. All parts of the plants are toxic.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s);
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Feature(s); foliage and flowers
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Jan Samanek, State Phytosanitary Administration, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s); immature
Ohio State Weed Lab Archive, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Mary Ellen (Mel) Harte, , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

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U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Antietam National Battlefield (Maryland)
Minute Man National Historical Park (Massachusetts)



Invasive Listing Sources:
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council
Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council