reed canarygrass USDA PLANTS Symbol: PHAR3
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Aquatic Grass or Grasslike
Phalaris arundinacea L.

Jump to: Resources | Images | Distribution Maps | Sources
Taxonomic Rank: Liliopsida: Cyperales: Poaceae
Synonym(s): reed canary grass
Native Range: N. Amer. From New Bruns. To AK, south to OK, AZ, Eurasia ()

Reed canarygrass is a cool-season perennial grass that grows to 6 ft. (1.7 m) tall. Leaf blades are flat, 1-4 ft. (0.3-1.2 m) long, up to 3/4 in. (1.9 cm) wide, glabrous and taper gradually. The ligule is membranous (transparent) and long. The spreading flower/seed heads arise from hairless stems and can be green, purple, or brown in color and usually 3-6 in. (7.6-15.2 cm) in length. Flowering occurs from May to July. Reed canarygrass is variable in morphology, so characteristics may depend upon the habitat. It spreads by seeds and rhizomes and can quickly dominate wetlands, ditches, prairie potholes and other sites with moist soil. Reed canarygrass can exclude all other vegetation and is extremely difficult to eradicate once established. Debate exists as to the nativity of reed canarygrass; it is native to Europe and possibly parts of Asia, but it may also be native to the northwestern United States. Aggressive behavior that is exhibited in many parts of the central and western United States may be a result of escaped cultivars that were bred for vigor and quick growth.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Flower(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Tom Heutte, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Jamie Nielsen, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Cooperative Extension Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); in flower
Jamie Nielsen, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Cooperative Extension Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Jamie Nielsen, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Cooperative Extension Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation; The darker colored patch of grass in the low area of this pasture is all reed canarygrass.
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

Alternative content

Get Adobe Flash player


U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Blue Ridge Parkway (North Carolina)
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore (Indiana)
Minute Man National Historical Park (Massachusetts)
Rocky Mountains National Park (Colorado)
Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway (Wisconsin)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008