paper-mulberry USDA PLANTS Symbol: BRPA4
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Hardwood Trees
Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Urticales: Moraceae
Synonym(s): paper mulberry
Native Range: China, Japan (REHD); temperate East Asia to Polynesia (BAIL);

Paper mulberry is a fast-growing, deciduous tree that grows up to 50 ft. (15.2 m) in height. It invades disturbed areas throughout the eastern United States. The tree crown is broad and rounded with wide-spreading branches. Paper mulberry leaves are highly variable in size (3-10 in. [7.6-25.4 cm]), shape, and arrangement. Shape ranges from heart-shaped and entire to multi-lobed and highly dissected. The leaves are usually alternate, but they can also be found whorled or opposite. Leaves are very fuzzy with coarsely serrated margins. The sap is milky-white and freely flows from cut surfaces. Flowering occurs in the spring, when female flowers form in globose heads and male flowers develop in catkins. Fruits are red to orange, globose and 1-1.6 in. (3-4 cm) in diameter. Winter twigs have a "fuzzy" appearance. Paper mulberry quickly invades disturbed areas and can be found along forest edges, old fields, and roads where it displaces native vegetation. Due to a shallow root system, the trees are often susceptible to being blown down in high winds. Paper mulberry is native to Asia where it was used to produce paper. It was introduced into North America in the early 1900s and has been widely planted as an ornamental.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Foliage; Close-up of leaf
Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
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Foliage; with fruit
J. Scott Peterson, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s); Male inflorescences
Gerald D. Carr, Carr Botanical Consultation, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Feature(s); buds
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Bark;
James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Sapling(s);
Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org
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Tree(s);
Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
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Tree(s);
Chuck Bargeron, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); habit Hana Hwy
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s);
Amy Richard, University of Florida, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 1: 632.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

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U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park (Maryland, Washington, D.C., and West Virginia)
Petersburg National Battlefield (Virginia)
Vicksburg National Military Park (Mississippi)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Faith Campbell, 1998
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council