Australian-pine USDA PLANTS Symbol: CAEQ
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Hardwood Trees
Casuarina equisetifolia L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Casuarinales: Casuarinaceae
Synonym(s): Australian pine, beach sheoak, common ironwood
Native Range: northeastern Australia, Pacific Islands, Southeast Asia (BAIL);

Australian pine is a deciduous tree that occurs in open, coastal habitats including sand beaches, rocky coasts and sand dunes. Trees can grow to over 100 ft. (30.5 m) in height. The reddish-brown to gray bark is brittle and peels. Branchlets resemble pine needles and are very thin, 4-8 in. (10-20 cm) long and gray-green. Male and female flowers are present on the same plant and are inconspicuous. Male flowers occur in terminal spikes, while the female flowers are in small, axillary clusters. Fruit are tiny, winged nutlets that each contain one seed. The fruits are contained in woody, cone-like structures that are ¾ in. (2 cm) long. Australian pine is native to Australia and southeast Asia and was introduced into Florida in the late 1800’s.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Foliage;
Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s); A close-up of a male catkin
John M. Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Cones; voucher 060422 16
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Fruit(s);
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s); seed capsule
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s); seed capsules
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Tree(s);
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
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Seedling(s);
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); habit
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); habit
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); habit
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Tree(s); Forest
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
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Tree(s); coastal trail
Forest and Kim Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Tree(s);
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Infestation;
Amy Ferriter, State of Idaho, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

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U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Big Cypress National Preserve (Florida)
Dry Tortugas
Everglades National Park (Florida)
Haleakala National Park (Hawaii)



Invasive Listing Sources:
Faith Campbell, 1998
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
University of Hawaii, Botany Department, Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies, 1998