European privet USDA PLANTS Symbol: LIVU
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Shrub or Subshrub
Ligustrum vulgare L.

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Scrophulariales: Oleaceae
Synonym(s): wild privet
Native Range: Europe, N. Africa (REHD); Medit. reg (BAIL);

European privet is a deciduous shrub that grows up to 15 ft. (4.8 m) in height. The trunks usually occur as multiple stems with many long, leafy branches. Leaves are opposite, oblong, 1-2.4 in. (2.5-6 cm) long and 0.2-0.6 in. (0.5-1.5 cm) wide. Flowering occurs in June, when white flowers develop at the end of branches in 1-3 in. (2.5-7.6 cm) long clusters. Fruits are spherical, 1/3 in. (8.5 mm) long, ripen to a dark purple to black color and persist into winter. Several privet species occur and they are often hard to distinguish. European privet commonly forms dense thickets in the fields or in the understory of forests. It can also be found along streams and other moist sites. Native to Europe, it is commonly used as an ornamental shrub and for hedgerows.

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Plant(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage;
Nava Tabak, Invasive Plant Atlas of New England, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Foliage; sprout
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s);
The Dow Gardens Archive, Dow Gardens, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Flower(s); foliage
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); early in season
Mark Frey, The Presidio Trust , Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s);
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Plant(s); Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 2: 729.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
Additional Resolutions & Image Usage

EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

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U.S. National Parks where reported invasive:
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park (Virginia)
Colonial National Historical Park (Virginia)
Fredericksburg & Spotsylvania National Military Park (Virginia)
George Washington Birthplace National Monument (Virginia)
Gettysburg National Military Park (Pennsylvania)
Great Smoky Mountains National Park (North Carolina & Tennessee)
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (West Virginia)
Kings Mountain National Military Park (South Carolina)
National Capital Parks East (Washington, D.C.)
Petersburg National Battlefield (Virginia)
Richmond National Battlefield Park (Virginia)
Shenandoah National Park (Virginia)



Invasive Listing Sources:
City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
Faith Campbell, 1998
Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council