European birch USDA PLANTS Symbol: BEPE3
U.S. Nativity: Exotic
Habit: Hardwood Trees
Betula pendula Roth

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Taxonomic Rank: Magnoliopsida: Fagales: Betulaceae
Synonym(s): silver birch
Native Range: Europe, Asia Minor (REHD, BAIL);

Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources

Selected Images from Invasive.orgView All Images at Invasive.org


Tree(s); habitat
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
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Tree(s); Snow covered. Poland
Gil Wojciech, Polish Forest Research Institute, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); 1. Flowering shoot with male (a - c) and female (d - f) catkins. - 2. Mature branchlet with fully developed, yet green male (a, b) and female (fruit-) catkins (c, d), and a ripe one (e - i). - 3. Three lobed bracts from (a) outer (abaxial), and (b) inner (adaxial) sides. - 4. Fruit is a winged nutlet. - 5. Seedling with cotyledons and first ordinary leaves. - 6. Winter-branchlet from a young tree furnished with glandular warts. - 7. Winter-branchlet with dormant male catkins (m - o), and the rachis of female catkins after the fruits and bracts fall (p, q, r). After Hempel & Wilhelm, 1889. Photos and explanations from the book: Zelimir Borzan. "Tree and Shrub Names in Latin, Croatian, English, and German, with synonyms", University of Zagreb, 2001.
Zelimir Borzan, University of Zagreb, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s); Birch (Betula pendula)
Norbert Frank, University of West Hungary, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Tom DeGomez, University of Arizona, Bugwood.org
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Cones; Cone-like fruit
Tom DeGomez, University of Arizona, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s); foliage
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
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Foliage; sprout
Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org
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EDDMapS Distribution:
This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts and records obtained from USDA Plants Database. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
 


State(s) Where Reported invasive.
Based on state level agency and organization lists of invasive plants from WeedUS database.

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Invasive Listing Sources:
Faith Campbell, 1998
Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
Reichard, Sarah. 1994.  Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.