Grasses and Grasslike Plants

Grasses and Grasslike Plants, known as Graminoids includes grasses (Poaceae), sedges (Cyperaceae), rushes (Juncaceae), arrow-grasses (Juncaginaceae), and quillworts (Isoetes). The following species have been reported to be invasive in natural areas in the U.S. Species native to the U.S. are included when they are invasive in areas well outside their known natural ranges, as a result of human activities. For more information on each species, including the listing sources, images, and distribution maps, click on the species.

185 Species

Subject Name Scientific Name Family U.S. Nativity
cogongrass Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
giant reed Arundo donax L. Poaceae Exotic
yellow nutsedge Cyperus esculentus L. Cyperaceae Native
tall fescue Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Poaceae Exotic
Japanese stiltgrass Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus Poaceae Exotic
Chinese silvergrass Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Poaceae Exotic
torpedograss Panicum repens L. Poaceae Exotic
common reed Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel Poaceae Exotic
golden bamboo Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière Poaceae Exotic
arrow bamboo Pseudosasa japonica (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) Makino ex Nakai Poaceae Exotic
johnsongrass Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. Poaceae Exotic
orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L. Poaceae Exotic
kikuyugrass Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. Poaceae Exotic
ricegrass paspalum Paspalum scrobiculatum Linnaeus Poaceae Exotic
itchgrass Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton Poaceae Exotic
jointed goatgrass Aegilops cylindrica Host Poaceae Exotic
barb goatgrass Aegilops triuncialis L Poaceae Exotic
creeping bentgrass Agrostis stolonifera L. Poaceae Exotic
slender meadow foxtail Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. Poaceae Exotic
European beachgrass Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link Poaceae Exotic
broomsedge bluestem Andropogon virginicus L. Poaceae Native
tall oatgrass Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J.& K. Presl Poaceae Exotic
small carpetgrass, joint-head grass Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino Poaceae Exotic
slender oat Avena barbata Pott ex Link Poaceae Exotic
wild oat Avena fatua L. Poaceae Exotic
carpetgrass Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm. Poaceae Native
field brome Bromus arvensis L. Poaceae Exotic
rescuegrass Bromus catharticus Vahl Poaceae Exotic
bald brome Bromus racemosus L. Poaceae Exotic
annual false-brome Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
ripgut brome Bromus diandrus Roth Poaceae Exotic
soft brome Bromus hordeaceus L. Poaceae Exotic
soft brome Bromus hordeaceus ssp. hordeaceus L. Poaceae Exotic
smooth brome Bromus inermis Leyss. Poaceae Exotic
red brome Bromus rubens L. Poaceae Exotic
rye brome Bromus secalinus L. Poaceae Exotic
poverty brome Bromus sterilis L. Poaceae Exotic
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum L. Poaceae Exotic
southern sandbur Cenchrus echinatus L. Poaceae Native
longspine sandbur Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fern Poaceae Native
purple pampasgrass Cortaderia jubata (Lem.) Stapf Poaceae Exotic
Uruguayan pampas grass Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn. Poaceae Exotic
bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers Poaceae Exotic
haspan flatsedge Cyperus haspan L. Cyperaceae Native
umbrella plant Cyperus involucratus Rottb Cyperaceae Exotic
rice flatsedge Cyperus iria L. Cyperaceae Exotic
miniature flatsedge Cyperus prolifer Lam Cyperaceae Exotic
purple nutsedge Cyperus rotundus L. Cyperaceae Exotic
crowfootgrass Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd Poaceae Exotic
southern crabgrass Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koel Poaceae Native
large crabgrass Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop Poaceae Exotic
barnyardgrass Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv Poaceae Exotic
perennial veldtgrass Ehrharta calycina Sm. Poaceae Exotic
panic veldtgrass Ehrharta erecta Lam. Poaceae Exotic
weeping grass Microlaena stipoides Labill. Poaceae Exotic
goosegrass Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Poaceae Exotic
quackgrass Elymus repens (L.) Gould Poaceae Exotic
stinkgrass Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen Poaceae Exotic
common velvetgrass Holcus lanatus L. Poaceae Exotic
leporinum barley Hordeum murinum ssp. leporinum (Link) Arcang. Poaceae Exotic
West Indian marsh grass Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees Poaceae Exotic
jaraguagrass Hyparrhenia rufa (Nees) Stapf Poaceae Exotic
broadleaf rush Juncus planifolius R. Br. Juncaceae Exotic
perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne L. Poaceae Exotic
meadow fescue Festuca pratensis Huds. Poaceae Exotic
molassesgrass Melinis minutiflora Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
natalgrass Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka Poaceae Exotic
burmareed Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex A.S. Hitchc. Poaceae Exotic
blue panicum Panicum antidotale Retz. Poaceae Exotic
sour paspalum Paspalum conjugatum Berg. Poaceae Native
dallisgrass Paspalum dilatatum Poir. Poaceae Exotic
bahiagrass Paspalum notatum Flueggé Poaceae Native
vaseygrass Paspalum urvillei Steud. Poaceae Exotic
elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher Poaceae Exotic
crimson fountaingrass Pennisetum setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov. Poaceae Exotic
bulbous canarygrass Phalaris aquatica L. Poaceae Exotic
reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L. Poaceae Exotic
canarygrass Phalaris canariensis L. Poaceae Exotic
littleseed canarygrass Phalaris minor Retz. Poaceae Exotic
timothy Phleum pratense L. Poaceae Exotic
annual bluegrass Poa annua L. Poaceae Exotic
bulbous bluegrass Poa bulbosa L. Poaceae Exotic
Canada bluegrass Poa compressa L. Poaceae Exotic
rabbitfoot polypogon Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Poaceae Exotic
Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis L. Poaceae Native
roughstalk bluegrass Poa trivialis L. Poaceae Exotic
anglestem beaksedge Rhynchospora caduca Ell. Cyperaceae Native
glenwoodgrass Sacciolepis indica (L.) Chase Poaceae Exotic
Arabian schismus Schismus arabicus Nees Poaceae Exotic
common mediterraneangrass Schismus barbatus (Loefl. ex L.) Thellung Poaceae Exotic
Colombian bluestem Schizachyrium condensatum (Kunth) Nees Poaceae Exotic
ricefield bulrush Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L.) Palla Cyperaceae Exotic
giant foxtail Setaria faberi Herrm. Poaceae Exotic
knotroot foxtail Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen Poaceae Native
palmgrass Setaria palmifolia (Koenig) Stapf Poaceae Exotic
yellow foxtail Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes Poaceae Exotic
bristly foxtail Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
green foxtail Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
green bristlegrass Setaria viridis var. viridis (L.) P. Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench Poaceae Exotic
sudangrass Sorghum bicolor ssp. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) de Wet & Harlan Poaceae Exotic
smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Poaceae Native
common cordgrass Spartina anglica C.E. Hubbard Poaceae Exotic
denseflower cordgrass Spartina densiflora Brongn. Poaceae Exotic
smutgrass Sporobolus indicus (L.) R. Br. Poaceae Native
saltmeadow cordgrass Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Poaceae Native
medusahead Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski Poaceae Exotic
guineagrass Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) R. Webster Poaceae Exotic
paragrass Urochloa mutica (Forsk.) T.Q. Nguyen Poaceae Exotic
ventenata Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss. & Durieu Poaceae Exotic
rattail fescue Vulpia myuros (L.) K.C. Gmel. Poaceae Exotic
weeping lovegrass Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees Poaceae Exotic
redtop Agrostis gigantea Roth Poaceae Exotic
Japanese sedge Carex kobomugi Ohwi Cyperaceae Exotic
colonial bentgrass Agrostis capillaris L. Poaceae Exotic
fountaingrass Pennisetum spp. L.C. Rich. ex Pers Poaceae
ryegrass Lolium spp. L. Poaceae
deeprooted sedge Cyperus entrerianus Boeckl. Cyperaceae Exotic
sweet vernalgrass Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Poaceae Exotic
false green kyllinga Kyllinga gracillima Miq. Cyperaceae Native
common bamboo Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex J.C. Wendl. Poaceae Exotic
limpograss Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C.E. Hubbard Poaceae Exotic
smooth barley Hordeum murinum ssp. glaucum (Steud.) Tzvelev Poaceae Exotic
ravennagrass Ripidium ravennae (L.) Trinius Poaceae Exotic
green kyllinga Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Cyperaceae Native
silver hairgrass Aira caryophyllea L. Poaceae Exotic
oakforest woodrush Luzula luzuloides (Lam.) Dandy & Wilmott Juncaceae Exotic
Long's sedge Carex longii Mackenzie Cyperaceae Native
white kyllinga Kyllinga nemoralis (J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch. & Dalziel Cyperaceae Exotic
big quakinggrass Briza maxima L. Poaceae Exotic
interrupted windgrass Apera interrupta (L.) Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
broadleaf carpetgrass Axonopus compressus (Sw.) Beauv. Poaceae Native
yellow bluestem Bothriochloa ischaemum var. songarica (Rupr. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Celarier & Harlan Poaceae Exotic
perennial false-brome Brachypodium sylvaticum (Huds.) Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
rattlesnake brome Bromus briziformis Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Poaceae Exotic
swollen fingergrass Chloris barbata Sw. Poaceae Exotic
Job's tears Coix lacryma-jobi L. Poaceae Exotic
Asian flatsedge Cyperus microiria Steud. Cyperaceae Exotic
pangolagrass Digitaria eriantha Steud. Poaceae Exotic
sourgrass Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman Poaceae Native
East Indian crabgrass Digitaria setigera Roth ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes Poaceae Exotic
violet crabgrass Digitaria violascens Link Poaceae Exotic
junglerice Echinochloa colona (L.) Link Poaceae Exotic
Cuming's lovegrass Eragrostis cumingii Steud. Poaceae Exotic
Lehmann lovegrass Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees Poaceae Exotic
tropical cupgrass Eriochloa fatmensis (Hochst. & Steud.) W.D. Clayton Poaceae Exotic
sheep fescue Festuca trachyphylla (Hack.) Krajina nom. illeg. Poaceae Exotic
red fescue Festuca rubra L. Poaceae Native
squirreltail fescue Vulpia bromoides (L.) S.F. Gray Poaceae Exotic
tall wheatgrass Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.) Z.-W. Liu & R.-C. Wang Poaceae Exotic
intermediate wheatgrass Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey Poaceae Exotic
St. Augustinegrass Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze Poaceae Native
rat-tail grass Sporobolus indicus var. capensis Engelm. Poaceae Exotic
tussock dropseed Sporobolus diandrus (Retz.) P. Beauv. Poaceae Exotic
blue lawngrass Garnotia stricta Brongn. Poaceae Exotic
nit grass Gastridium phleoides (Nees & Meyen) C.E. Hubbard Poaceae Exotic
German velvetgrass Holcus mollis L. Poaceae Exotic
mouse barley Hordeum murinum L. Poaceae Exotic
swordleaf rush Juncus ensifolius Wikstr. Juncaceae Native
Tasmanian wallaby grass Rytidosperma biannulare (Zotov) Connor & Edgar Poaceae Exotic
hairy wallaby grass Rytidosperma penicillatum (Labill.) Connor & Edgar Poaceae Exotic
Italian ryegrass Festuca perennis (L.) Columbus & J.P. Sm. Poaceae Exotic
water-bent Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr. Poaceae Exotic
bristle basketgrass Oplismenus hirtellus (L.) Beauv. Poaceae Native
Panama crowngrass Paspalum fimbriatum Kunth Poaceae Native
buffelgrass Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link Poaceae Exotic
tussock paspalum Paspalum quadrifarium Lam. Poaceae Exotic
lakeshore nutrush Scleria lacustris C. Wright Cyperaceae Exotic
Pacific bentgrass Agrostis avenacea J.F. Gmel. Poaceae Exotic
meadow foxtail Alopecurus pratensis Linnaeus Poaceae Exotic
hedgehog dogtailgrass Cynosurus echinatus L. Poaceae Exotic
longflowered veldtgrass Ehrharta longiflora Sm. Poaceae Exotic
waxy mannagrass Glyceria declinata Brébiss. Poaceae Exotic
smilograss Piptatherum miliaceum (L.) Coss. Poaceae Exotic
ripgut brome Bromus diandrus ssp. rigidus (Roth) Sales Poaceae Exotic
wavyleaf basketgrass Oplismenus hirtellus ssp. undulatifolius (Ard.) U. Scholz Poaceae Exotic
tropical signalgrass Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q. Nguyen Poaceae Exotic
Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis ssp. pratensis L. Poaceae
Panicum maximum Jacq. Poaceae
hanging sedge Carex pendula Huds. Cyperaceae Exotic
little quakinggrass Briza minor L. Poaceae Exotic
seaside barley Hordeum marinum Huds. Poaceae Exotic
cordgrass hybrid Spartina foliosa x alterniflora N/A Poaceae Exotic
watergrass Luziola subintegra Swallen Poaceae Exotic
Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) C. E. Hubbard Poaceae