yellow toadflax

Scrophulariales > Scrophulariaceae > Linaria vulgaris P. Mill.
Synonym(s): butter and eggs, Jacob's ladder, wild snapdragon

Yellow toadflax is a perennial herb that can reach 3.3 ft. (1 m) tall. Leaves are nearly sessile, drooping, linear and 1-2 in. (2.5-5 cm) long. Leaves can sometimes be sparsely covered by long hairs. Flowering occurs from May to September, when yellow/white, snapdragon-like flowers develop. Flowers, including the spur, are 0.6-1.2 in. (1.5-3 cm) long and occur in racemes at the apex of the stems. Fruits are capsules that are 0.4-0.5 in. (9-12 mm) long. Each capsule contains small, flat seeds with a papery wing. Yellow toadflax is native to Europe and was introduced into North America, as an ornamental, in the mid 1600s. Plants occur in fields, pastures, roadsides, undisturbed prairies and rangelands.


Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources


Selected Images from Invasive.org

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Seedling(s); Along with dandelion rosettes
Elizabeth Bella, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Elizabeth Bella, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Feature(s); Roots
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s); Montana
Wendy VanDyk Evans, , Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Michael Shephard, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); side view of clump of plants in flower
Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s); fruit and seeds
Ken Chamberlain, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
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Foliage; view from above
John Cardina, Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); in flower
Linda Wilson, University of Idaho, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); in flower
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s);
John Cardina, Ohio State University, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s);
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); Field of flowers, Routt NF, CO
William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org
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Infestation; Pikes Peak Ranger District, Pike National Forest, south-central Colorado
Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Steve Dewey, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Diagram or Graphic; Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. Illustrated flora of the northern states and Canada. Vol. 3: 177.
USDA PLANTS Database, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Invasive Reference(s):

Check Invasive.org for most current lists.
  • California - Invasive Plant Inventory
  • Colorado - Noxious Weed Law
  • Montana - Noxious Weed Law
  • New Mexico - Noxious Weed Law
  • Nevada - Noxious Weed Law
  • Oregon - Noxious Weed Law
  • South Dakota - Noxious Weed Law
  • Washington - Noxious Weed Law
  • Wyonming - Noxious Weed Law
  • Mid-Atlantic - EPPC List
  • Invasive Plants: Western North America
  • Invasive Plants of the Upper Midwest


External Links


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