Australian pine

Casuarinales > Casuarinaceae > Casuarina equisetifolia L.
Synonym(s): beach sheoak, common ironwood

Australian pine is a deciduous tree that occurs in open, coastal habitats including sand beaches, rocky coasts and sand dunes. Trees can grow to over 100 ft. (30.5 m) in height. The reddish-brown to gray bark is brittle and peels. Branchlets resemble pine needles and are very thin, 4-8 in. (10-20 cm) long and gray-green. Male and female flowers are present on the same plant and are inconspicuous. Male flowers occur in terminal spikes, while the female flowers are in small, axillary clusters. Fruit are tiny, winged nutlets that each contain one seed. The fruits are contained in woody, cone-like structures that are 3/4 in. (2 cm) long. Australian pine is native to Australia and southeast Asia and was introduced into Florida in the late 1800s.


Identification, Biology, Control and Management Resources


Selected Images from Invasive.org

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Seedling(s);
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
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Tree(s);
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
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Foliage;
Amy Ferriter, South Florida Water Management District, Bugwood.org
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Flower(s);
Amy Ferriter, South Florida Water Management District, Bugwood.org
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Fruit(s);
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
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Cones; voucher 060422 16
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s); seed capsule
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s); seed capsules
Dan Clark, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); habit
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
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Plant(s); habit
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
768x512 / 1536x1024

Plant(s); habit
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
768x512 / 1536x1024

Tree(s);
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Tony Pernas, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org
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Tree(s); Forest
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
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Tree(s); coastal trail
Forest & Kim Starr, U.S. Geological Survey, Bugwood.org
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Infestation;
Amy Ferriter, South Florida Water Management District, Bugwood.org
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Seed(s);
Steve Hurst, USDA NRCS PLANTS Database, Bugwood.org
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Invasive Reference(s):

Check Invasive.org for most current lists.
  • California - Invasive Plant Inventory
  • Florida - EPPC list
  • Texas - Invasive Plant List


External Links


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USDA Forest Service Bugwood University of Georgia