Invasive Plants of the United States:
Identification, Biology and Control


Invasive Plants


Technical Coordinators:
Charles T. Bargeron, Carey R. Minteer, Christopher W. Evans,
David J. Moorhead, G. Keith Douce and Richard C. Reardon


The University of Georgia
Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health and
USDA Forest Service - Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team
FHTET-2008-11

A biological invasion of non-native plants is spreading into our nation's fields, pastures, forests, wetlands, waterways, natural areas, and rights-of-way. Variously referred to as exotic, nonnative, alien, noxious, or non-indigenous weeds, invasive plants impact native plant and animal communities by displacing native vegetation and disrupting habitats as they become established and spread over time.

The project includes 218 invasive plant species in the United States. The focus of this DVD-ROM is to provide identification, ecology, and control information for invasive plants in the United States occurring in aquatic, wetland, forest, rangeland, desert, or prairie habitats. This product compiles information in recent publications from leaders in invasive species management in the United States, such as the USDA Forest Service, USDA APHIS PPQ, The Nature Conservancy, The Plant Conservation Alliance, The Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, and the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England.

While this is not an official list of "invasive" plants throughout the United States, it includes Federal Noxious Weeds and those listed by state regulatory agencies, pest plant councils, and other organizations. Some of the plants on this list are often found in ornamental plantings and landscapes. In fact, many non-native plants introduced for horticultural and agricultural use now pose a serious ecological threat in the absence of their natural predators and control agents. This publication will aid landowners, foresters, resource managers, and the general public in becoming familiar with invasive plants in their area to help protect our environment from the economic and ecological impacts of these biological pollutants.

www.invasive.org




Aquatic Plants:

alligatorweed Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb.
flowering rush Butomus umbellatus L.
fanwort Cabomba caroliniana L
Brazilian egeria Egeria densa Planch.
waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms
hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle
purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L.
marsh dewflower Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.
parrotfeather watermilfoil Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.
variable watermilfoil Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx.
Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum L.
brittleleaf naiad Najas minor All.
waterlettuce Pistia stratiotes L.
curlyleaf pondweed Potamogeton crispus L.
giant salvinia Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell
wetland nightshade Solanum tampicense Dunal
water chestnut Trapa natans L.

Ferns:

Japanese climbing fern Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw.
old world climbing fern Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br.

Forbs:

Russian knapweed Acroptilion repens (L.) DC.
bishops goutweed Aegopodium podagraria L.
garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande
wild garlic Allium vineale L.
lesser burrdock Arctium minus Bernh.
absinth wormwood Artemisia absinthium L.
Mexican fireweed Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott
hoary cress Cardaria draba (L.) Desv
spiny plumeless thistle Carduus acanthoides L.
musk thistle Carduus nutans L.
slenderflower thistle Carduus tenuiflorus W. Curtis
meadow knapweed Centaurea x moncktonii C. E. Britton
purple starthistle Centaurea calcitrapa L
diffuse knapweed Centaurea diffusa Lam.
brown knapweed Centaurea jacea L.
black knapweed Centaurea nigra L.
yellow starthistle Centaurea solstitialis L.
spotted knapweed Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek
squarrose knapweed Centaurea virgata Lam.
greater celandine Chelidonium majus L.
rush skeletonweed Chondrilla juncea L.
Canada thistle Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
bull thistle Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
coco yam, wild taro Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott
Benghal dayflower Commelina benghalensis L.
poison hemlock Conium maculatum L.
common crupina Crupina vulgaris Cass.
houndstongue Cynoglossum officinale L.
Queen Anne's lace, wild carrot Daucus carota L.
common teasel Dipsacus fullonum L.
cutleaf teasel Dipsacus laciniatus L
cypress spurge Euphorbia cyparissias L.
leafy spurge Euphorbia esula L.
mulberryweed Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai
goatsrue Galega officinalis L.
ground ivy Glechoma hederacea L.
halogeton Halogeton glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey.
orange daylily Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L.
giant hogweed Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier
damesrocket Hesperis matronalis L.
orange hawkweed Hieracium aurantiacum L.
meadow hawkweed Hieracium caespitosum Dumort.
black henbane Hyoscyamus niger L.
common St. Johnswort Hypericum perforatum L.
ornamental jewelweed Impatiens glandulifera Royle
yellowflag iris Iris pseudacorus L.
Dyer's woad Isatis tinctoria L.
Japanese clover Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl.
prickly lettuce Lactuca serriola L.
perennial pepperweed Lepidium latifolium L.
sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don
oxeye daisy Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.
Dalmatian toadflax Linaria dalmatica (L.) P. Mill.
yellow toadflax Linaria vulgaris P. Mill.
birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus L.
yellow sweetclover Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.
Scotch thistle Onopordum acanthium L.
wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa L.
African rue Peganum harmala L.
oriental ladysthumb Polygonum caespitosum Blume
Japanese knotweed Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc.
sulphur cinquefoil Potentilla recta L.
fig buttercup Ranunculus ficaria L.
red sorrel Rumex acetosella L.
Russian-thistle Salsola tragus L.
Mediterranean sage Salvia aethiopis L.
tansy ragwort Senecio jacobaea L.
blessed milkthistle Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.
tall tumblemustard Sisymbrium altissimum L.
turkey berry Solanum torvum Swartz
tropical soda apple Solanum viarum Dunal
perennial sowthistle Sonchus arvensis L.
swainsonpea Sphaerophysa salsula (Pallas) DC.
common chickweed Stellaria media (L.) Vill.
common tansy Tanacetum vulgare L.
Japanese hedgeparsley Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC.
coltsfoot Tussilago farfara L.
common mullein Verbascum thapsus L.
common cocklebur Xanthium strumarium L.
Syrian beancaper Zygophyllum fabago L.

Grasses and Grasslike Plants:

jointed goatgrass Aegilops cylindrica Host
small carpgrass Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino
giant reed Arundo donax L.
smooth brome Bromus inermis Leyss.
cheatgrass Bromus tectorum L.
Japanese sedge Carex kobomugi Ohwi
pampasgrass Cortaderia jubata (Lem.) Stapf
bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers
deeprooted sedge Cyperus entrerianus Boeckl.
orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L.
quackgrass Elymus repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski
weeping lovegrass Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees
reed mannagrass Glyceria maxima (Hartman) Holmb.
cogongrass Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.
Nepalese browntop Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus
Chinese silvergrass Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.
burmareed Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex A.S. Hitchc.
torpedograss Panicum repens L.
tussock paspalum Paspalum quadrifarium Lam.
crimson fountaingrass Pennisetum setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov.
reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L.
common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.
golden bamboo Phyllostachys aurea Carrière ex A. Rivière & C. Rivière
itchgrass Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton
tall fescue Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub
giant foxtail Setaria faberi Herrm.
johnsongrass Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
smooth cordgrass Spartina alterniflora Loisel.
medusahead Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski

Parasitic Plants:

Japanese dodder Cuscuta japonica Choisy
small broomrape Orobanche minor Smith
witchweed Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze

Shrubs:

camelthorn Alhagi maurorum Medik
coral ardisia Ardisia crenata Sims
shoebutton ardisia Ardisia elliptica Thunb
Japanese barberry Berberis thunbergii DC.
common barberry Berberis vulgaris L
butterflybush Buddleja davidii Franch.
Asian nakedwood Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn
Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link
thorny olive Elaeagnus pungens Thunb.
autumn olive Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.
winged burning bush Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb.
lantana Lantana camara L.
shrubby lespedeza Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.
Japanese privet Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.
glossy privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f.
Chinese privet Ligustrum sinense Lour.
European privet Ligustrum vulgare L.
sweet breath of spring Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton
Amur honeysuckle Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder
Morrow's honeysuckle Lonicera morrowii Gray
Tatarian honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica L.
Bell's honeysuckle Lonicera x bella Zabel [morrowii x tatarica]
dwarf honeysuckle Lonicera xylosteum L.
leatherleaf mahonia Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carr.
sacred bamboo Nandina domestica Thunb.
strawberry guava Psidium cattleianum Sabine
jetbead Rhodotypos scandens (Thunb.) Makino
Macartney rose Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl.
multiflora rose Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murr.
Himalaya blackberry Rubus armeniacus Focke
wine raspberry Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim.
Japanese spirea Spiraea japonica L. f.
tamarisk Tamarix spp. L.
gorse Ulex europaeus L.

Trees:

Amur maple Acer ginnala Maxim.
Norway maple Acer platanoides L.
tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle
mimosa Albizia julibrissin Durazz.
paper mulberry Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hèr. ex Vent.
Australian pine Casuarina equisetifolia L.
camphortree Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl
carrotwood Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk.
Russian olive Elaeagnus angustifolia L.
glossy buckthorn Frangula alnus P. Mill.
melaleuca Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake
chinaberry Melia azedarach L.
miconia Miconia calvescens DC.
white mulberry Morus alba L.
princesstree Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.
Amur corktree Phellodendron amurense Rupr.
trifoliate orange Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.
white poplar Populus alba L.
Callery pear (Bradford pear) Pyrus calleryana Dcne.
sawtooth oak Quercus acutissima Carruthers
common buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica L.
black locust Robinia pseudoacacia L.
octopus tree Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) H.A.T. Harms
Brazilian peppertree Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi
Chinese tallowtree Triadica sebifera (L.) Small
Siberian elm Ulmus pumila L.
tungoil tree Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw

Vines:

chocolate vine Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne.
Amur peppervine Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv.
bushkiller Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnepain
oriental bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.
sweet autumn virginsbower Clematis terniflora DC
field bindweed Convolvulus arvensis L.
black swallowwort Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi
European swallowwort Cynanchum rossicum (Kleopov) Barbarich
winged yam Dioscorea alata L.
air potato Dioscorea bulbifera L.
Chinese yam Dioscorea oppositifolia L.
winter creeper Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Maz.
English ivy Hedera helix L.
Japanese hop Humulus japonicus Sieb. & Zucc
Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Thunb.
skunk vine Paederia foetida L.
mile-a-minute weed Polygonum perfoliatum L.
kudzu Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.
crownvetch Securigera varia (L.) Lassen
bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara L.
puncturevine Tribulus terrestris L.
bigleaf periwinkle Vinca major L.
common periwinkle Vinca minor L.
beach vitex Vitex rotundifolia L. f.
Japanese wisteria Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC.
Chinese wisteria Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC.

USDA Forest Service Publications:

Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States
Biology and Biological Control of Dalmatian and Yellow Toadflax
Biology and Biological Control of Knapweed
Biology and Biological Control of Leafy Spurge
Biology and Biological Control of Purple Loosestrife
Biology and Biological Control of Yellow Starthistle
Fire Effects Information System
Invasive Plants and Exotic Weeds of Southeast Alaska
Invasive Plants Field and Reference Guide
Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the United States and Their Natural Enemies Vol. 1
Invasive Plants of Asian Origin Established in the United States and Their Natural Enemies Vol. 2
Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests
Selected Invasive Plants of Alaska
Symposium on the Biology, Ecology, and Management of Garlic Mustard and European Buckthorn
Weeds of the Week

Other Publications:

Control of Problem Weeds in Range and Pasture - Montana, Utah, & Wyoming CES
Element Stewardship Abstracts - The Nature Conservancy
Identification and Biology of Non-Native Plants in Florida's Natural Areas - University of Florida
Invasive Plant Atlas of New England - University of Connecticut
Invasive Plant Responses to Silvicultural Practices in the South - University of Georgia
Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas - National Park Service & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - SE-EPPC
Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas - Plant Conservation Alliance

Project Information:

Acknowledgments
Photographers
Use of Images
Web sites of Interest

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