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Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States

James H. Miller
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Erwin B. Chambliss
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Charles T. Bargeron
The Bugwood Network
The University of Georgia
Tifton Georgia

This is a compilation of invasive plants listed by any of the 13 Southern States and those by federal agencies pertaining to these States as of May 2004. Plants listed include those from the Federal Noxious Weed List as of September 2000, State laws (denoted as Laws), and State exotic pest plant councils (denoted as Lists). Currently, there are 7 States with noxious weed laws and 8 States with invasive plant lists. No lists were available for the states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

The USDA Forest Service Southern Region's "Regional forester's list and ranking structure: invasive exotic plant species of management concern (2001)" has been included as a "policy" that guides invasive management on National Forest lands. Also, included is the list of invasive plants being monitored by the USDA Forest Service and States Forestry Agencies as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis.

Please note: You may click on each of the headers below to resort the list. The scientific names are also hyperlinked to images and information about the plant.



Federal Noxious Weed List: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Arkansas: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LAW
a=Class A - Federally listed
b=Class B - Nonnative, in state serious threat
c=Class C - poses harm to industries
South Carolina: LAW
a=General list not categorized
North Carolina: LAW
a=Class A noxious weeds
b=Class B noxious weeds
Florida: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LIST
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LIST
a=Worst ten
Georgia: LIST
a=Top ten listed
b=Other important
Tennessee: LIST
a=Rank 1 Severe threat
b=Rank 2 Significant threat
c=Rank 3 Lesser threat
Watch Lists A&B not included
Kentucky: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Lesser threat
South Carolina: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Watch
Virginia: LIST
a=High Invasiveness
b=Medium Invasiveness
c=Low invasiveness
Florida: LIST
a=Category I altering plant community
b=Category II increased frequency but not altering plant community
USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and State Monitoring for Invasive Plants:
a=Monitored in 13 SE states
b=Monitored in Florida only
National Forest Service: POLICY
a=Category 1 species known to be invasive and persistent
b=Category 2 species suspected to be invasive

Growth Form Scientific Name Common Name US
law
AR
law
MS
law
AL
law
SC
law
NC
law
FL
law
  MS
list
AL
list
GA
list
SC
list
FL
list
TN
list
KY
list
VA
list
USFS
policy
USFS & State
Monitoring
Aquatic Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek                         b b      
Aquatic Spirodela punctata (G.F.W. Mey.) C.H. Thompson                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Ficus microcarpus Vahl.                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea dubia Suter ssp. vochinensis (Bernh. ex Rchb.) Hayek                             c    
Conifer Trees Pinus thunbergiana Franco                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia spp. L. aeginetia a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Lycium ferocessimum Miers African boxthorn a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria abyssinica (A. Rich) Stapf African couchgrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum macrourum Trinius African feathergrass a       a a a                    
Vines Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B.L. Robins. African mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Vines Dioscorea bulbifera L. air-potato       a     a         a       a a
Hardwood Trees Prosopis alpataco R. A. Philippi alapataco a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis sericantha Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. albardon a                                
Forbs/Herbs Alectra spp. Thunb. alectra a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Drymaria arenarioides Humboldt & Bonpland alfombrilla a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Prosopis argentina Burkart algarobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis humilis Gillies ex Hooker & Arnott algarrobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis elata (Burkart) Burkart algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis campestris Griesbach algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis hassleri Harms ex Hassler algarrobo paraguayo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis denudans Bentham algarrobo patagonica a                                
Aquatic Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. alligatorweed   a   c a     a a b   b b   c b  
Vines Syngonium podophyllum Schott American evergreen                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder Amur honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth anchored waterhyacinth a a     a a                      
Grass or Grasslike Poa annua L. annual bluegrass                           c      
Hardwood Trees Calophyllum antillanum Britt Antilles calophyllum                       a          
Vines Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. Arabian jasmine                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis strombulifera (Lamarck) Bentham Argentine screwbean a                                
Aquatic Sagittaria sagittifolia Linnaeus arrowhead a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott arrowleaf elephant's ear                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms arrowleaved monochoria a       a a                      
Hardwood Trees Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Asian nakedwood                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis brownii (Desv.) Hovenkamp & Miyam. Asian swordfern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina communis L. Asiatic dayflower                           c c    
Hardwood Trees Terminalia muelleri Benth. Australian almond                       b          
Hardwood Trees Casuarina equisetifolia L. Australian-pine                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. autumn olive                   a a   a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum notatum Flueggé bahiagrass                     b            
Grass or Grasslike Bromus racemosus L. bald brome   a                     b        
Vines Cardiospermum halicacabum L. balloonvine   a   c a               c   b    
Shrub or Subshrub Melastoma malabathricum L. Banks melastoma a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Prosopis kuntzei Harms ex Hassler barbe de tigre a                                
Grass or Grasslike Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv barnyardgrass   a                       c      
Forbs/Herbs Callisia fragrans (Lindl.) Woods basketplant                       b          
Vines Sphagneticola trilobata (L.C. Rich.) Pruski Bay Biscayne creeping-oxeye                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Scaevola taccada Vahl beach naupaka                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Vitex rotundifolia L. f. beach vitex                     b            
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Grass or Grasslike Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers bermudagrass   a               b              
Vines Vinca major L. big periwinkle                     c       c   a
Vines Cuscuta megalocarpa Rydb bigfruit dodder a                                
Forbs/Herbs Sesbania herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh bigpod sesbania   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Lotus corniculatus L. birdsfoot trefoil                             c    
Vines Solanum dulcamara L. bittersweet nightshade                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Medicago lupulina L. black medic                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Cnicus benedictus L. blessed thistle         a                        
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia spathacea Sw. boatlily                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. border privet                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Plantago aristata Michx. bracted plantain   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche ramosa L. branched broomrape a       a a a                    
Aquatic Sparganium erectum L. branched burreed a       a a                      
Hardwood Trees Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian peppertree             a         a         b
Grass or Grasslike Imperata brasiliensis Trinius Brazilian satintail a   c   a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Verbena incompta P. W. Michael Brazilian vervain                               a  
Aquatic Egeria densa Planch. Brazilian waterweed       c a               c   b b  
Aquatic Najas minor All. brittleleaf naiad       d a                        
Shrub or Subshrub Ruellia simplex C. Wright Britton's wild petunia                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Spermacoce alata Aubl. broadleaf buttonweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche spp. L. broomrape a           a                    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea jacea L. brown knapweed                             b    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza rufipogon Griffiths brown-beard rice a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Plantago lanceolata L. buckhorn plantain   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Ranunculus bulbosus L. bulbous buttercup                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. bull thistle                     b   b   b b  
Grass or Grasslike Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex A.S. Hitchc. burmareed                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Urena lobata L. Caesarweed                       b          
Hardwood Trees Prosopis caldenia Burkart calden a                                
Forbs/Herbs Eschscholzia californica Cham California poppy                         a        
Hardwood Trees Pyrus calleryana Dcne. Callery pear (Bradford pear)                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Hardwood Trees Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl camphortree                       a       a  
Grass or Grasslike Poa compressa L. Canada bluegrass                           c b    
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle           b             b b c b  
Forbs/Herbs Homeria spp. Vent. cape tulip a         a                      
Forbs/Herbs Ajuga reptans L. carpet bugle                             c    
Hardwood Trees Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. carrotwood             a         a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Ricinus communis L. castorbean                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa pellita Kunth ex Willd. catclaw mimosa a       a a a         a       b  
Vines Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H. Gentry catclaw-vine                       a       b b
Shrub or Subshrub Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. cathedral bells                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Nepeta cataria L. catnip                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila ssp. pallidefusca (Schumacher) B.K. Simon cattail grass a       a a a                    
Vines Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl centipede tongavine                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus urinaria L. chamber bitter       c             c            
Grass or Grasslike Bromus tectorum L. cheatgrass                         b        
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa laevigata Michx. Cherokee rose                 a               a
Forbs/Herbs Cichorium intybus L. chicory                         a a      
Hardwood Trees Melia azedarach L. chinaberry                   b b a c   b   a
Hardwood Trees Murraya exotica L. Chinese box                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub Chinese fleecevine                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight Chinese parasoltree                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum sinense Lour. Chinese privet               a a a a a a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Chinese silvergrass                   b b   b a c b a
Grass or Grasslike Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees Chinese sprangletop a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Triadica sebifera (L.) Small Chinese tallowtree     a       a a a a a a       a a
Vines Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders Chinese violet                       b          
Vines Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC. Chinese wisteria                   a a b b   b b a
Vines Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Chinese yam                     c   a a c a a
Vines Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne. chocolate vine                           b b    
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ferox Griesbach churqui a                                
Vines Begonia cucullata Willd clubed begonia                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Tridax procumbens L. coat buttons a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spp. L. cocklebur   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott coco yam, wild taro                     c a          
Grass or Grasslike Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. cogongrass a a a   a a a a a b c a     c a a
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Tussilago farfara L. coltsfoot       a                 b        
Forbs/Herbs Arctium minus Bernh. common burdock                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin common chickweed                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium strumarium L. common cocklebur                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Crupina vulgaris Cass. common crupina a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Verbascum thapsus L. common mullein                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Vinca minor L. common periwinkle                     c   b b c   a
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Forbs/Herbs Prunella vulgaris L. common selfheal                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Hypericum perforatum L. common St. Johnswort                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Holcus lanatus L. common velvetgrass                           c b    
Forbs/Herbs Vicia sativa Linnaeus common vetch                         b        
Aquatic Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms common water hyacinth   a   c a     a   b   a       a  
Shrub or Subshrub Ardisia crenata Sims coral ardisia                       a       b b
Vines Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. coral vine                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Agrostemma githago L corn cockle   a     a                        
Forbs/Herbs Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston corn gromwell                         c a      
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea cyanus L. cornflower                         c        
Hardwood Trees Ficus altissima Blume council tree                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke cowpea witchweed a       a a           a          
Forbs/Herbs Lysimachia nummularia L. creeping yellow loosestrife, creeping Jenney                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche crenata Forsk. crenate broomrape a                                
Aquatic Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ktze. crested floating heart                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov. crimson fountaingrass                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H.E. Robins. croftonweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Rumex crispus L. curly dock                             b    
Aquatic Potamogeton crispus L. curly-leaved pondweed       c                 b        
Hardwood Trees Prosopis calingastana Burkart cusqui a                                
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus laciniatus L. cutleaf teasel                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Hesperis matronalis L. dames rocket                         b        
Hardwood Trees Cestrum diurnum L. day jessamine                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus entrerianus Boeckl. deeprooted sedge                     c            
Forbs/Herbs Striga densiflora (Benth.) Benth. denseflower witchweed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Dianthus armeria L. Deptford pink                           c      
Hardwood Trees Alstonia macrophylla Wallich ex G. Don deviltree                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Rumex spp. L. dock   a                              
Vines Cuscuta spp. L. dodder a a     a a a                    
Aquatic Ottelia alismoides (Linnaeus) Pers. duck-lettuce a       a a                      
Aquatic Salvinia auriculata Aublet eared salvinia a       a a       b              
Shrub or Subshrub Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunningham ex Benth. earleaf acacia                       a          
Vines Aristolochia elegans Mast. elegant dutchman's pipe                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher elephant grass             a         a         b
Hardwood Trees Ochrosia elliptica Labill. elliptic yellowwood                       b          
Vines Hedera helix L. English ivy                   b b   a b b b a
Aquatic Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian water-milfoil       d a b           b a   c b  
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus fruticosus L. European blackberry a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum vulgare L. European privet                         a a   a a
Aquatic Trapa natans L. European water chestnut       c a a                 c    
Aquatic Azolla pinnata R. Brown feathered mosquito-fern a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill. fennel                             b    
Vines Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed   a                       c b    
Grass or Grasslike Bromus arvensis L. field brome                         b        
Hardwood Trees Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana (Hayata) F.G. Mey. flamegold                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Stachys floridana Shuttlw. ex Benth. Florida betony           b                      
Hardwood Trees Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R. Br. ex Mart. fountain palm                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. foxtail millet                         b        
Hardwood Trees Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. fragrant manjack                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix gallica L. French tamarisk                   b              
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum ssp. sylvestris (Huds.) Clapham Fuller's teasel                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande garlic mustard       a             c   a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Setaria faberi Herrm. giant foxtail   a                     b b b    
Forbs/Herbs Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier giant hogweed a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Arundo donax L. giant reed                   b b   c   b    
Aquatic Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell giant salvinia a   a   a a       b   a       a  
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle giant sensitiveplant a       a a a                    
Vines Cuscuta potosina Schaffn globe dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta potosina var. globifera Yunck. globe dodder a                                
Shrub or Subshrub Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D. Austin gloria de la manana                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton glossy privet                       a       a  
Forbs/Herbs Galega officinalis L. goatsrue a       a a a                    
Vines Jasminum dichotomum Vahl Gold Coast jasmine                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière golden bamboo                   a b b     b   a
Grass or Grasslike Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. goosegrass                           b      
Shrub or Subshrub Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr governor's plum                       b          
Hardwood Trees Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng gray sheoak                       a         b
Grass or Grasslike Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. green foxtail                         b b      
Forbs/Herbs Glechoma hederacea L. ground ivy                         c b b    
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium guajava L. guava                       a         b
Grass or Grasslike Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) R. Webster guineagrass                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Indigofera hirsuta L. hairy indigo                                 b
Vines Calystegia sepium ssp. sepium (L.) R. Br. hedge false bindweed   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Lamium amplexicaule L. henbit                           c      
Aquatic Salvinia herzogii de la Sota Herzog salvinia a       a a       b              
Shrub or Subshrub Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz hiptage                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum carolinense L. horsenettle   a                              
Aquatic Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle hydrilla a   a   a a     a a   a b   c a  
Forbs/Herbs Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce iguanatail                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Tectaria incisa Cav. incised halberd fern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke Indian mock-strawberry                           c      
Hardwood Trees Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. Indian rosewood                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton itchgrass a a a   a a a     b              
Vines Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. ivyleaf morningglory                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Veronica hederifolia L. ivyleaf speedwell                             b    
Vines Tribulus cistoides L. Jamaica feverplant                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum jamaicense P. Mill. Jamaican nightshade                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese barberry                         b b b a  
Vines Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw. Japanese climbing fern       b     a   a b b a       a a
Vines Cuscuta japonica Choisy Japanese dodder a                   c            
Vines Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese honeysuckle               a   a a a a a c a a
Vines Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. Japanese hop                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Fallopia japonica (Houttuyn) Ronse-Decraene Japanese knotweed       c           b b   a a c a  
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. Japanese privet                     a   b     a a
Grass or Grasslike Carex kobomugi Ohwi Japanese sedge                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Spiraea japonica L. f. Japanese spiraea                         a b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus Japanese stiltgrass       c           a a   a a c a a
Vines Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC. Japanese wisteria                     a   b   c b a
Hardwood Trees Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Java plum                       a          
Hardwood Trees Bischofia javanica Blume Javanese bishopwood                       a          
Vines Jasminum fluminense Vell. jazmin de trapo                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. johnsongrass   a           a   b c   a a c a  
Shrub or Subshrub Opuntia aurantiaca Lindley jointed prickly pear a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Poa pratensis L. Kentucky bluegrass                           b      
Hardwood Trees Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth kiawe a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. kikuyugrass a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Vines Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida kudzu     a       a a a a a a a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum ssp. unispiculum Brunken Kyasuma grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum Trinius kyasumagrass a       a   a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Pteris vittata L. ladder brake                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray ladysthumb                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Chenopodium album L lambsquarters                           c      
Shrub or Subshrub Lantana camara L. largeleaf lantana                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Prosopis torquata (Cavan. ex Lagasca y Segura) DC. lata a                                
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia esula L. leafy spurge                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carr. leatherleaf mahonia                     b   b        
Forbs/Herbs Ficaria verna Huds. lesser celandine, fig buttercup                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume limnophila a       a a           b          
Grass or Grasslike Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C.E. Hubbard limpograss                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. linden viburnum                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa panicoides Beauvois liverseedgrass a       a a a                    
Aquatic Salvinia biloba Raddi lobed salvinia a       a a       b              
Grass or Grasslike Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. & Roehr. longstamen rice a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl. Macartney rose                 a               a
Forbs/Herbs Senecio madagascariensis Poir. Madagascar ragwort a                                
Vines Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Dcne. Madagascar rubbervine                       b          
Hardwood Trees Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Malabar plum                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz. marsh dayflower                     a   b   c    
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Mascarene Island leaf-flower       c             c            
Grass or Grasslike Festuca pratensis Huds. meadow fescue                         b        
Aquatic Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardth Mediterranean clone of caulerpa a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Salsola vermiculata L. Mediterranean saltwort a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake melaleuca a       a a a         a         a
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruizlealii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis rojasiana Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis fiebrigii Harms mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis castellanosii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis spp. L. mesquite         a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Prosopis burkartii Muñoz mesquite a                                
Forbs/Herbs Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants mexicantea                           c      
Vines Mikania micrantha Kunth mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Vines Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross mile-a-minute vine       a c a                 c b  
Hardwood Trees Albizia julibrissin Durazz. mimosa                   a b a a b b a a
Forbs/Herbs Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim. miniature beefsteakplant                           b      
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus prolifer Lam miniature flatsedge                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders. miramar weed a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion ssp. setosum (Sw.) Brunken mission grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion (Linnaeus) Schultes mission grass a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Melinis minutiflora Beauv. molassesgrass                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus moluccanus L. Molucca raspberry a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. monk orchid                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Liriope muscari (Dcne.) Bailey monkeygrass                     c            
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) K. Presl ex Kunth monochoria a       a a                      
Vines Ipomoea spp. L. morningglory   a                              
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera morrowii Gray Morrow's honeysuckle                         a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. motherwort                           c      
Shrub or Subshrub Bauhinia variegata L mountain ebony                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Artemisia vulgaris L. mugwort                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai mulberryweed       c                 c        
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa multiflora Thunb. multiflora rose       c         a b a   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Carduus nutans L. musk thistle           b       b b   b a b b  
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl narrow swordfern                       a         b
Grass or Grasslike Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka natalgrass                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Lapsana communis L. nipplewort                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche cernua Loefl. [excluded] nodding broomrape a                                
Forbs/Herbs Aeschynomene virginica (L.) B.S.P northern jointvetch   a         a                    
Hardwood Trees Acer platanoides L. Norway maple                             b    
Hardwood Trees Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) H.A.T. Harms octopus tree                       a         b
Vines Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. old world climbing fern       a     a         a       a b
Forbs/Herbs Allium spp. L. onions   c                              
Forbs/Herbs Asphodelus fistulosus Linnaeus onionweed a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Dactylis glomerata L. orchardgrass                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt Oregon grape                     b            
Vines Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. oriental bittersweet           c         c   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa Oriental lady's thumb                         b b b b  
Forbs/Herbs Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. oxeye daisy                         c        
Aquatic Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss oxygen weed a       a a                      
Hardwood Trees Prosopis palmeri S. Watson palo de hierro a                                
Hardwood Trees Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. paper-mulberry                       b c        
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa mutica (Forsk.) T.Q. Nguyen paragrass                       a          
Aquatic Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. parrotfeather       c         a b     b   c    
Forbs/Herbs Mentha x piperita L. (pro sp.) peppermint                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton perilla mint                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend. piedmont bedstraw                           a      
Grass or Grasslike Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. pilipiliula a       a a a                    
Vines Ipomoea lacunosa L. pitted morningglory                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Lolium temulentum L. poison ryegrass   a     a                        
Forbs/Herbs Conium maculatum L. poison-hemlock                         b c c    
Vines Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv. porcelain-berry                             c b  
Hardwood Trees Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa portia tree                       a          
Hardwood Trees Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. princesstree                   b b   a b b   a
Hardwood Trees Ptychosperma elegans (R. Br.) Blume ptychosperma                       b          
Vines Tribulus terrestris L. puncturevine           b             c        
Forbs/Herbs Securigera varia (L.) Lassen purple crown-vetch                         b a c b  
Aquatic Lythrum salicaria L. purple loosestrife   a   b a b   a     c   a a c a  
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus rotundus L. purple nutsedge   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth purple witchweed a                                
Grass or Grasslike Elymus repens (L.) Gould quackgrass                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Daucus carota L. Queen Anne's lace, wild carrot                   b c   b b      
Palms Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc. queen palm                                
Forbs/Herbs Crotalaria spp. L. rattlebox   a                              
Hardwood Trees Adenanthera pavonina L red beadtree                       b          
Vines Ipomoea coccinea L. red morningglory                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza punctata Kotzchy ex Steud. red rice a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. red sesbania                   b   b          
Forbs/Herbs Rumex acetosella L. red sorrel                           c b    
Vines Passiflora foetida L. redfruit passionflower                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis gigantea Roth redtop                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Bromus catharticus Vahl rescuegrass                         c        
Grass or Grasslike Oryza sativa L. rice   a     a                        
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum scrobiculatum Linnaeus ricegrass paspalum a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. river sheoak                       b         b
Vines Abrus precatorius L. rosarypea                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. rose myrtle             a         a       a b
Grass or Grasslike Poa trivialis L. roughstalk bluegrass                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo Russian knapweed         a                        
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Russian olive                     a   c   c b a
Grass or Grasslike Bromus secalinus L. rye brome   a                     b        
Shrub or Subshrub Nandina domestica Thunb. sacred bamboo                   b b a b     b a
Hardwood Trees Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen sapodilla                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury saramollagrass a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Quercus acutissima Carruthers sawtooth oak                             b    
Shrub or Subshrub Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link Scotch broom                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Talipariti tiliaceum var. tiliaceum L. sea hibiscus                       b          
Hardwood Trees Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret Seifriz's chamaedorea                                
Hardwood Trees Phoenix reclinata Jacq. Senegal date palm                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don sericea lespedeza                   b c   a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Nassella trichotoma Hackel ex Arech. serrated tussock a a     a a a                    
Aquatic Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. sessile joyweed a       a a a         a          
Vines Paederia cruddasiana Prain sewer vine             a         a         b
Hardwood Trees Ardisia elliptica Thunb shoebutton ardisia                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera x bella Zabel [morrowii × tatarica] showy fly honeysuckle, Bell's honeysuckle                         a   c    
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. shrubby lespedeza                   b b   b b c   a
Hardwood Trees Ulmus pumila L. Siberian elm                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby sicklepod                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanaugh silverleaf nightshade   a                              
Shrub or Subshrub Flueggea acidoton (L.) G.L. Webster simpleleaf bushweed                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum (Graebn.) H. Hara simplestem bur-reed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Agave sisalana Perrine sisal                       b          
Vines Paederia foetida L. skunk-vine       b     a         a       a  
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche minor Smith small broomrape a       a a       b   a          
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Bromus inermis Leyss. smooth brome                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Senecio inaequidens DC. South African ragwort a                                
Vines Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle Spanish arborvine                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spinosum L. spiny cocklebur                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Emex spinosa (Linnaeus) Campdera spiny emex a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Carduus acanthoides L. spiny plumeless thistle           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Forbs/Herbs Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link spreading hedgeparsley                         b        
Shrub or Subshrub Asparagus aethiopicus L. Sprenger's asparagus fern                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera standishii Jacques Standish's honeysuckle                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Ornithogalum umbellatum L. star-of-Bethlehem       c     a           c b      
Grass or Grasslike Avena sterilis Linnaeus sterile oat a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Urtica dioica L. stinging nettle                         c        
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen stinkgrass                           c      
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium cattleianum Sabine strawberry guava                       a         b
Forbs/Herbs Potentilla recta L. sulfur cinquefoil                           c      
Shrub or Subshrub Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam cherry                       a         b
Vines Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. swamp morningglory a       a a           a          
Forbs/Herbs Crassula helmsii A. Berger swamp stonecrop           a                      
Vines Clematis terniflora DC sweet autumn virginsbower                     c   b        
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton sweet breath of spring                     c   a   c a a
Hardwood Trees Prosopis farcta (Banks & Soland.) J.F. Macbr. Syrian mesquite a                                
Grass or Grasslike Festuca arundinacea Schreb. tall fescue             a     b b   b c b a a
Vines Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth tall morningglory                           b b    
Grass or Grasslike Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J.& K. Presl tall oatgrass                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Verbena bonariensis L. tall vervain                   b              
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix spp. L. tamarisk                                  
Hardwood Trees Citrus reticulata Blanco tangerine         a                        
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera tatarica L. Tatarian honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Forbs/Herbs Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. tawny daylily                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Helianthus ciliaris DC. Texas blueweed   a     a                        
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. thorny olive                     a b a   c b a
Forbs/Herbs Microthlaspi perfoliatum (L.) F.K. Mey. thoroughwort pennycress                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Emex australis Steinhall three-cornered jack a       a a a                    
Vines Ipomoea triloba L. threelobe morningglory         a   a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Lespedeza thunbergii (DC.) Nakai Thunberg lespedeza                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Arenaria serpyllifolia L. thymeleaf sandwort                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Phleum pratense L. timothy           a               c c    
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis reptans var. cinerascens (A. Gray) Burkart tornillo a                                
Grass or Grasslike Panicum repens L. torpedograss       c           b   a       a  
Hardwood Trees Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle tree-of-heaven         b               a a c a a
Hardwood Trees Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. trifoliate orange                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Terminalia catappa L. tropical almond                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Solanum viarum Dunal tropical soda apple a   a   a a a a a b b a a     a a
Hardwood Trees Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. trumpet-tree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw tungoil tree                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum torvum Sw. turkeyberry a       a a a         a          
Vines Passiflora biflora Lam. twoflower passionflower                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum diphyllum L. twoleaf nightshade                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus involucratus Rottb umbrella plant                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Ludwigia uruguayensis Camb.) Hara Uruguay waterprimrose         a b                      
Vines Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Irwin & Barneby valamuerto                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria velutina (Forsk.) Beauv. velvet fingergrass a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Prosopis velutina Woot. velvet mesquite a                                
Grass or Grasslike Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small vetivergrass                               b  
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruscifolia Griesbach vinal a                                
Aquatic Pistia stratiotes L. water lettuce       c a             a       b  
Forbs/Herbs Ludwigia grandiflora ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz water primrose         c                        
Aquatic Stratiotes aloides L. water soldier       c                          
Aquatic Salvinia spp. Séguier watermoss                                  
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Grass or Grasslike Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees West Indian marsh grass                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Tragopogon dubius Scop. western salsify                         c        
Vines Solanum tampicense Dunal wetland nightshade a       a a a         a          
Hardwood Trees Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit white leadtree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Morus alba L. white mulberry                           b c    
Hardwood Trees Populus alba L. white poplar                         b b b    
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus album Medikus white sweetclover                         b a c    
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. white-flowered spiderwort                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Allium vineale L. wild garlic                         c   b b  
Forbs/Herbs Pastinaca sativa L. wild parsnip                         c   c    
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia heterophylla L wild poinsettia         a   a                    
Forbs/Herbs Raphanus raphanistrum L. wild radish                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieberstein wild safflower a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Saccharum spontaneum L. wild sugarcane a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Lactuca saligna L. willowleaf lettuce                           c      
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. wine raspberry                         c   c    
Shrub or Subshrub Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. winged burning bush                     c   b a c   a
Vines Dioscorea alata L. winged yam             a         a       a a
Vines Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Maz. winter creeper                   b c   a a b a a
Forbs/Herbs Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze witchweed a         a                      
Forbs/Herbs Striga spp. Lour. witchweed a a     a a                      
Hardwood Trees Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth woman's tongue tree                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia indica L. ye gu a                                
Forbs/Herbs Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Bess. yellow fieldcress           b                      
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes yellow foxtail                         b        
Aquatic Iris pseudacorus L. yellow iris                         c   b    
Forbs/Herbs Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. yellow rocket                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. yellow sweet-clover                         b a c    
Forbs/Herbs Oxalis stricta L. yellow woodsorrel                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Melasma melampyroides (Rich.) Pennell ex Britton & P.Wilson yerba de hierro a                                


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USDA Forest ServiceUSDA APHIS PPQ The Bugwood Network University of Georgia Invasive.org is a joint project of The Bugwood Network, USDA Forest Service and USDA APHIS PPQ.
The University of Georgia - Warnell School of Forest Resources and
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Dept. of Entomology
Last updated on Saturday, March 07, 2009 at 04:40 PM
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