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Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States

James H. Miller
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Erwin B. Chambliss
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Charles T. Bargeron
The Bugwood Network
The University of Georgia
Tifton Georgia

This is a compilation of invasive plants listed by any of the 13 Southern States and those by federal agencies pertaining to these States as of May 2004. Plants listed include those from the Federal Noxious Weed List as of September 2000, State laws (denoted as Laws), and State exotic pest plant councils (denoted as Lists). Currently, there are 7 States with noxious weed laws and 8 States with invasive plant lists. No lists were available for the states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

The USDA Forest Service Southern Region's "Regional forester's list and ranking structure: invasive exotic plant species of management concern (2001)" has been included as a "policy" that guides invasive management on National Forest lands. Also, included is the list of invasive plants being monitored by the USDA Forest Service and States Forestry Agencies as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis.

Please note: You may click on each of the headers below to resort the list. The scientific names are also hyperlinked to images and information about the plant.



Federal Noxious Weed List: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Arkansas: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LAW
a=Class A - Federally listed
b=Class B - Nonnative, in state serious threat
c=Class C - poses harm to industries
South Carolina: LAW
a=General list not categorized
North Carolina: LAW
a=Class A noxious weeds
b=Class B noxious weeds
Florida: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LIST
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LIST
a=Worst ten
Georgia: LIST
a=Top ten listed
b=Other important
Tennessee: LIST
a=Rank 1 Severe threat
b=Rank 2 Significant threat
c=Rank 3 Lesser threat
Watch Lists A&B not included
Kentucky: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Lesser threat
South Carolina: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Watch
Virginia: LIST
a=High Invasiveness
b=Medium Invasiveness
c=Low invasiveness
Florida: LIST
a=Category I altering plant community
b=Category II increased frequency but not altering plant community
USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and State Monitoring for Invasive Plants:
a=Monitored in 13 SE states
b=Monitored in Florida only
National Forest Service: POLICY
a=Category 1 species known to be invasive and persistent
b=Category 2 species suspected to be invasive

Growth Form Scientific Name Common Name US
law
AR
law
MS
law
AL
law
SC
law
NC
law
FL
law
  MS
list
AL
list
GA
list
SC
list
FL
list
TN
list
KY
list
VA
list
USFS
policy
USFS & State
Monitoring
Vines Abrus precatorius L. rosarypea                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunningham ex Benth. earleaf acacia                       a          
Hardwood Trees Acer platanoides L. Norway maple                             b    
Hardwood Trees Adenanthera pavonina L red beadtree                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia indica L. ye gu a                                
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia spp. L. aeginetia a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Aeschynomene virginica (L.) B.S.P northern jointvetch   a         a                    
Forbs/Herbs Agave sisalana Perrine sisal                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H.E. Robins. croftonweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Agrostemma githago L corn cockle   a     a                        
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass                             b    
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis gigantea Roth redtop                             c    
Hardwood Trees Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle tree-of-heaven         b               a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Ajuga reptans L. carpet bugle                             c    
Vines Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne. chocolate vine                           b b    
Hardwood Trees Albizia julibrissin Durazz. mimosa                   a b a a b b a a
Hardwood Trees Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth woman's tongue tree                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Alectra spp. Thunb. alectra a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Forbs/Herbs Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande garlic mustard       a             c   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Allium spp. L. onions   c                              
Forbs/Herbs Allium vineale L. wild garlic                         c   b b  
Hardwood Trees Alstonia macrophylla Wallich ex G. Don deviltree                       b          
Aquatic Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. alligatorweed   a   c a     a a b   b b   c b  
Aquatic Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. sessile joyweed a       a a a         a          
Vines Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv. porcelain-berry                             c b  
Vines Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. coral vine                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Arctium minus Bernh. common burdock                           b      
Shrub or Subshrub Ardisia crenata Sims coral ardisia                       a       b b
Hardwood Trees Ardisia elliptica Thunb shoebutton ardisia                       a          
Palms Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc. queen palm                                
Forbs/Herbs Arenaria serpyllifolia L. thymeleaf sandwort                           c      
Vines Aristolochia elegans Mast. elegant dutchman's pipe                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J.& K. Presl tall oatgrass                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Artemisia vulgaris L. mugwort                         b   b    
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Arundo donax L. giant reed                   b b   c   b    
Shrub or Subshrub Asparagus aethiopicus L. Sprenger's asparagus fern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Asphodelus fistulosus Linnaeus onionweed a       a a a                    
Vines Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders Chinese violet                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Avena sterilis Linnaeus sterile oat a       a a a                    
Aquatic Azolla pinnata R. Brown feathered mosquito-fern a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. yellow rocket                           c      
Shrub or Subshrub Bauhinia variegata L mountain ebony                       a          
Vines Begonia cucullata Willd clubed begonia                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese barberry                         b b b a  
Hardwood Trees Bischofia javanica Blume Javanese bishopwood                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Bromus arvensis L. field brome                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus catharticus Vahl rescuegrass                         c        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus inermis Leyss. smooth brome                         c b   b  
Grass or Grasslike Bromus racemosus L. bald brome   a                     b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus secalinus L. rye brome   a                     b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus tectorum L. cheatgrass                         b        
Hardwood Trees Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. paper-mulberry                       b c        
Forbs/Herbs Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston corn gromwell                         c a      
Forbs/Herbs Callisia fragrans (Lindl.) Woods basketplant                       b          
Hardwood Trees Calophyllum antillanum Britt Antilles calophyllum                       a          
Vines Calystegia sepium ssp. sepium (L.) R. Br. hedge false bindweed   a                              
Vines Cardiospermum halicacabum L. balloonvine   a   c a               c   b    
Forbs/Herbs Carduus acanthoides L. spiny plumeless thistle           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Carduus nutans L. musk thistle           b       b b   b a b b  
Grass or Grasslike Carex kobomugi Ohwi Japanese sedge                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieberstein wild safflower a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. river sheoak                       b         b
Hardwood Trees Casuarina equisetifolia L. Australian-pine                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng gray sheoak                       a         b
Aquatic Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardth Mediterranean clone of caulerpa a       a a                      
Hardwood Trees Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. trumpet-tree                       b          
Vines Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. oriental bittersweet           c         c   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea cyanus L. cornflower                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea dubia Suter ssp. vochinensis (Bernh. ex Rchb.) Hayek                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea jacea L. brown knapweed                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Hardwood Trees Cestrum diurnum L. day jessamine                       b          
Hardwood Trees Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret Seifriz's chamaedorea                                
Forbs/Herbs Chenopodium album L lambsquarters                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. pilipiliula a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Cichorium intybus L. chicory                         a a      
Hardwood Trees Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl camphortree                       a       a  
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle           b             b b c b  
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. bull thistle                     b   b   b b  
Hardwood Trees Citrus reticulata Blanco tangerine         a                        
Vines Clematis terniflora DC sweet autumn virginsbower                     c   b        
Forbs/Herbs Cnicus benedictus L. blessed thistle         a                        
Forbs/Herbs Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott coco yam, wild taro                     c a          
Hardwood Trees Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Asian nakedwood                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina communis L. Asiatic dayflower                           c c    
Forbs/Herbs Conium maculatum L. poison-hemlock                         b c c    
Vines Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed   a                       c b    
Hardwood Trees Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. fragrant manjack                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Crassula helmsii A. Berger swamp stonecrop           a                      
Forbs/Herbs Crotalaria spp. L. rattlebox   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend. piedmont bedstraw                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Crupina vulgaris Cass. common crupina a       a a a                    
Vines Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Dcne. Madagascar rubbervine                       b          
Hardwood Trees Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. carrotwood             a         a         b
Vines Cuscuta japonica Choisy Japanese dodder a                   c            
Vines Cuscuta megalocarpa Rydb bigfruit dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta potosina Schaffn globe dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta potosina var. globifera Yunck. globe dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta spp. L. dodder a a     a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers bermudagrass   a               b              
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus entrerianus Boeckl. deeprooted sedge                     c            
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus involucratus Rottb umbrella plant                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus prolifer Lam miniature flatsedge                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus rotundus L. purple nutsedge   a                              
Shrub or Subshrub Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link Scotch broom                     c            
Grass or Grasslike Dactylis glomerata L. orchardgrass                             c    
Hardwood Trees Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. Indian rosewood                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Daucus carota L. Queen Anne's lace, wild carrot                   b c   b b      
Forbs/Herbs Dianthus armeria L. Deptford pink                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria abyssinica (A. Rich) Stapf African couchgrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria velutina (Forsk.) Beauv. velvet fingergrass a       a a a                    
Vines Dioscorea alata L. winged yam             a         a       a a
Vines Dioscorea bulbifera L. air-potato       a     a         a       a a
Vines Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Chinese yam                     c   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum ssp. sylvestris (Huds.) Clapham Fuller's teasel                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus laciniatus L. cutleaf teasel                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Drymaria arenarioides Humboldt & Bonpland alfombrilla a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke Indian mock-strawberry                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants mexicantea                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv barnyardgrass   a                       c      
Aquatic Egeria densa Planch. Brazilian waterweed       c a               c   b b  
Aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth anchored waterhyacinth a a     a a                      
Aquatic Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms common water hyacinth   a   c a     a   b   a       a  
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Russian olive                     a   c   c b a
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. thorny olive                     a b a   c b a
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. autumn olive                   a a   a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. goosegrass                           b      
Grass or Grasslike Elymus repens (L.) Gould quackgrass                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Emex australis Steinhall three-cornered jack a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Emex spinosa (Linnaeus) Campdera spiny emex a       a a a                    
Vines Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl centipede tongavine                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen stinkgrass                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Forbs/Herbs Eschscholzia californica Cham California poppy                         a        
Shrub or Subshrub Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam cherry                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. winged burning bush                     c   b a c   a
Vines Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Maz. winter creeper                   b c   a a b a a
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia esula L. leafy spurge                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia heterophylla L wild poinsettia         a   a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub Chinese fleecevine                     c            
Forbs/Herbs Fallopia japonica (Houttuyn) Ronse-Decraene Japanese knotweed       c           b b   a a c a  
Forbs/Herbs Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai mulberryweed       c                 c        
Grass or Grasslike Festuca arundinacea Schreb. tall fescue             a     b b   b c b a a
Grass or Grasslike Festuca pratensis Huds. meadow fescue                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Ficaria verna Huds. lesser celandine, fig buttercup                             c    
Hardwood Trees Ficus altissima Blume council tree                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Ficus microcarpus Vahl.                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight Chinese parasoltree                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr governor's plum                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Flueggea acidoton (L.) G.L. Webster simpleleaf bushweed                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill. fennel                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Galega officinalis L. goatsrue a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Glechoma hederacea L. ground ivy                         c b b    
Vines Hedera helix L. English ivy                   b b   a b b b a
Forbs/Herbs Helianthus ciliaris DC. Texas blueweed   a     a                        
Grass or Grasslike Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C.E. Hubbard limpograss                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. tawny daylily                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier giant hogweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Hesperis matronalis L. dames rocket                         b        
Shrub or Subshrub Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz hiptage                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Holcus lanatus L. common velvetgrass                           c b    
Forbs/Herbs Homeria spp. Vent. cape tulip a         a                      
Vines Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. Japanese hop                             b    
Aquatic Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle hydrilla a   a   a a     a a   a b   c a  
Forbs/Herbs Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders. miramar weed a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees West Indian marsh grass                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Hypericum perforatum L. common St. Johnswort                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Imperata brasiliensis Trinius Brazilian satintail a   c   a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. cogongrass a a a   a a a a a b c a     c a a
Forbs/Herbs Indigofera hirsuta L. hairy indigo                                 b
Vines Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. swamp morningglory a       a a           a          
Shrub or Subshrub Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D. Austin gloria de la manana                       b          
Vines Ipomoea coccinea L. red morningglory                             c    
Vines Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. ivyleaf morningglory                           b b    
Vines Ipomoea lacunosa L. pitted morningglory                           c      
Vines Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth tall morningglory                           b b    
Vines Ipomoea spp. L. morningglory   a                              
Vines Ipomoea triloba L. threelobe morningglory         a   a         a          
Aquatic Iris pseudacorus L. yellow iris                         c   b    
Grass or Grasslike Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury saramollagrass a       a a a                    
Vines Jasminum dichotomum Vahl Gold Coast jasmine                       a          
Vines Jasminum fluminense Vell. Brazilian jasmine                       a          
Vines Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. Arabian jasmine                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. cathedral bells                       b          
Hardwood Trees Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana (Hayata) F.G. Mey. flamegold                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Lactuca saligna L. willowleaf lettuce                           c      
Aquatic Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss oxygen weed a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Lamium amplexicaule L. henbit                           c      
Shrub or Subshrub Lantana camara L. largeleaf lantana                       a         b
Forbs/Herbs Lapsana communis L. nipplewort                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. motherwort                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees Chinese sprangletop a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. shrubby lespedeza                   b b   b b c   a
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don sericea lespedeza                   b c   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Lespedeza thunbergii (DC.) Nakai Thunberg lespedeza                           c      
Hardwood Trees Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit white leadtree                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. oxeye daisy                         c        
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. Japanese privet                     a   b     a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton glossy privet                       a       a  
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. border privet                             b    
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum sinense Lour. Chinese privet               a a a a a a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum vulgare L. European privet                         a a   a a
Forbs/Herbs Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume limnophila a       a a           b          
Forbs/Herbs Liriope muscari (Dcne.) Bailey monkeygrass                     c            
Hardwood Trees Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R. Br. ex Mart. fountain palm                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Lolium temulentum L. poison ryegrass   a     a                        
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton sweet breath of spring                     c   a   c a a
Vines Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese honeysuckle               a   a a a a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder Amur honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera morrowii Gray Morrow's honeysuckle                         a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera standishii Jacques Standish's honeysuckle                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera tatarica L. Tatarian honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera x bella Zabel [morrowii × tatarica] showy fly honeysuckle, Bell's honeysuckle                         a   c    
Forbs/Herbs Lotus corniculatus L. birdsfoot trefoil                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Ludwigia grandiflora ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz water primrose         c                        
Shrub or Subshrub Ludwigia uruguayensis Camb.) Hara Uruguay waterprimrose         a b                      
Shrub or Subshrub Lycium ferocessimum Miers African boxthorn a       a a a                    
Vines Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw. Japanese climbing fern       b     a   a b b a       a a
Vines Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. old world climbing fern       a     a         a       a b
Forbs/Herbs Lysimachia nummularia L. creeping yellow loosestrife, creeping Jenney                         b   b    
Aquatic Lythrum salicaria L. purple loosestrife   a   b a b   a     c   a a c a  
Vines Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H. Gentry catclaw-vine                       a       b b
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carr. leatherleaf mahonia                     b   b        
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt Oregon grape                     b            
Hardwood Trees Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen sapodilla                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Medicago lupulina L. black medic                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) R. Webster guineagrass                       b          
Hardwood Trees Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake melaleuca a       a a a         a         a
Forbs/Herbs Melasma melampyroides (Rich.) Pennell ex Britton & P.Wilson yerba de hierro a                                
Shrub or Subshrub Melastoma malabathricum L. Banks melastoma a       a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Melia azedarach L. chinaberry                   b b a c   b   a
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus album Medikus white sweetclover                         b a c    
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. yellow sweet-clover                         b a c    
Grass or Grasslike Melinis minutiflora Beauv. molassesgrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka natalgrass                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Mentha x piperita L. (pro sp.) peppermint                           b      
Vines Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle Spanish arborvine                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus Japanese stiltgrass       c           a a   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Microthlaspi perfoliatum (L.) F.K. Mey. thoroughwort pennycress                           a      
Vines Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B.L. Robins. African mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Vines Mikania micrantha Kunth mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle giant sensitiveplant a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa pellita Kunth ex Willd. catclaw mimosa a       a a a         a       b  
Grass or Grasslike Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Chinese silvergrass                   b b   b a c b a
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms arrowleaved monochoria a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) K. Presl ex Kunth monochoria a       a a                      
Hardwood Trees Morus alba L. white mulberry                           b c    
Forbs/Herbs Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim. miniature beefsteakplant                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz. marsh dayflower                     a   b   c    
Hardwood Trees Murraya exotica L. Chinese box                       b          
Aquatic Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. parrotfeather       c         a b     b   c    
Aquatic Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian water-milfoil       d a b           b a   c b  
Aquatic Najas minor All. brittleleaf naiad       d a                        
Shrub or Subshrub Nandina domestica Thunb. sacred bamboo                   b b a b     b a
Grass or Grasslike Nassella trichotoma Hackel ex Arech. serrated tussock a a     a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Nepeta cataria L. catnip                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis brownii (Desv.) Hovenkamp & Miyam. Asian swordfern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl narrow swordfern                       a         b
Grass or Grasslike Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex A.S. Hitchc. burmareed                       a          
Aquatic Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ktze. crested floating heart                       b          
Hardwood Trees Ochrosia elliptica Labill. elliptic yellowwood                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. monk orchid                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Opuntia aurantiaca Lindley jointed prickly pear a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Ornithogalum umbellatum L. star-of-Bethlehem       c     a           c b      
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche cernua Loefl. [excluded] nodding broomrape a                                
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche crenata Forsk. crenate broomrape a                                
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche minor Smith small broomrape a       a a       b   a          
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche spp. L. broomrape a           a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. & Roehr. longstamen rice a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza punctata Kotzchy ex Steud. red rice a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza rufipogon Griffiths brown-beard rice a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Oryza sativa L. rice   a     a                        
Aquatic Ottelia alismoides (Linnaeus) Pers. duck-lettuce a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Oxalis stricta L. yellow woodsorrel                           c      
Vines Paederia cruddasiana Prain sewer vine             a         a         b
Vines Paederia foetida L. skunk-vine       b     a         a       a  
Grass or Grasslike Panicum repens L. torpedograss       c           b   a       a  
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum notatum Flueggé bahiagrass                     b            
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum scrobiculatum Linnaeus ricegrass paspalum a       a a a                    
Vines Passiflora biflora Lam. twoflower passionflower                       b          
Vines Passiflora foetida L. redfruit passionflower                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Pastinaca sativa L. wild parsnip                         c   c    
Hardwood Trees Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. princesstree                   b b   a b b   a
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. kikuyugrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum macrourum Trinius African feathergrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum Trinius kyasumagrass a       a   a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum ssp. unispiculum Brunken Kyasuma grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion (Linnaeus) Schultes mission grass a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion ssp. setosum (Sw.) Brunken mission grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher elephant grass             a         a         b
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov. crimson fountaingrass                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton perilla mint                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa Oriental lady's thumb                         b b b b  
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray ladysthumb                         c b      
Vines Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross mile-a-minute vine       a c a                 c b  
Forbs/Herbs Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel branched broomrape a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Phleum pratense L. timothy           a               c c    
Hardwood Trees Phoenix reclinata Jacq. Senegal date palm                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Mascarene Island leaf-flower       c             c            
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus urinaria L. chamber bitter       c             c            
Grass or Grasslike Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière golden bamboo                   a b b     b   a
Conifer Trees Pinus thunbergiana Franco                             c    
Aquatic Pistia stratiotes L. water lettuce       c a             a       b  
Forbs/Herbs Plantago aristata Michx. bracted plantain   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Plantago lanceolata L. buckhorn plantain   a                              
Grass or Grasslike Poa annua L. annual bluegrass                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Poa compressa L. Canada bluegrass                           c b    
Grass or Grasslike Poa pratensis L. Kentucky bluegrass                           b      
Grass or Grasslike Poa trivialis L. roughstalk bluegrass                             b    
Hardwood Trees Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. trifoliate orange                     c            
Hardwood Trees Populus alba L. white poplar                         b b b    
Aquatic Potamogeton crispus L. curly-leaved pondweed       c                 b        
Forbs/Herbs Potentilla recta L. sulfur cinquefoil                           c      
Hardwood Trees Prosopis alpataco R. A. Philippi alapataco a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis argentina Burkart algarobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis burkartii Muñoz mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis caldenia Burkart calden a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis calingastana Burkart cusqui a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis campestris Griesbach algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis castellanosii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis denudans Bentham algarrobo patagonica a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis elata (Burkart) Burkart algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis farcta (Banks & Soland.) J.F. Macbr. Syrian mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ferox Griesbach churqui a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis fiebrigii Harms mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis hassleri Harms ex Hassler algarrobo paraguayo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis humilis Gillies ex Hooker & Arnott algarrobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis kuntzei Harms ex Hassler barbe de tigre a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth kiawe a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis palmeri S. Watson palo de hierro a                                
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis reptans var. cinerascens (A. Gray) Burkart tornillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis rojasiana Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruizlealii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruscifolia Griesbach vinal a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis sericantha Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. albardon a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis spp. L. mesquite         a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis strombulifera (Lamarck) Bentham Argentine screwbean a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis torquata (Cavan. ex Lagasca y Segura) DC. lata a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis velutina Woot. velvet mesquite a                                
Forbs/Herbs Prunella vulgaris L. common selfheal                           a      
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium cattleianum Sabine strawberry guava                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium guajava L. guava                       a         b
Forbs/Herbs Pteris vittata L. ladder brake                       b          
Hardwood Trees Ptychosperma elegans (R. Br.) Blume ptychosperma                       b          
Vines Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida kudzu     a       a a a a a a a a c a a
Hardwood Trees Pyrus calleryana Decne. Callery pear (Bradford pear)                     c            
Hardwood Trees Quercus acutissima Carruthers sawtooth oak                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Ranunculus bulbosus L. bulbous buttercup                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Raphanus raphanistrum L. wild radish                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo Russian knapweed         a                        
Hardwood Trees Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. rose myrtle             a         a       a b
Shrub or Subshrub Ricinus communis L. castorbean                       b          
Aquatic Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek                         b b      
Forbs/Herbs Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Bess. yellow fieldcress           b                      
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl. Macartney rose                 a               a
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa laevigata Michx. Cherokee rose                 a               a
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa multiflora Thunb. multiflora rose       c         a b a   a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton itchgrass a a a   a a a     b              
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus fruticosus L. European blackberry a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus moluccanus L. Molucca raspberry a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. wine raspberry                         c   c    
Shrub or Subshrub Ruellia simplex C. Wright Britton's wild petunia                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Rumex acetosella L. red sorrel                           c b    
Forbs/Herbs Rumex crispus L. curly dock                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Rumex spp. L. dock   a                              
Grass or Grasslike Saccharum spontaneum L. wild sugarcane a       a a a         a          
Aquatic Sagittaria sagittifolia Linnaeus arrowhead a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Salsola vermiculata L. Mediterranean saltwort a       a a a                    
Aquatic Salvinia auriculata Aublet eared salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia biloba Raddi lobed salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia herzogii de la Sota Herzog salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell giant salvinia a   a   a a       b   a       a  
Aquatic Salvinia spp. Séguier watermoss                                  
Forbs/Herbs Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce iguanatail                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Scaevola taccada Vahl beach naupaka                       a          
Hardwood Trees Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) H.A.T. Harms octopus tree                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian peppertree             a         a         b
Forbs/Herbs Securigera varia (L.) Lassen purple crown-vetch                         b a c b  
Forbs/Herbs Senecio inaequidens DC. South African ragwort a                                
Forbs/Herbs Senecio madagascariensis Poir. Madagascar ragwort a                                
Forbs/Herbs Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby sicklepod                             c    
Vines Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Irwin & Barneby valamuerto                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Sesbania herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh bigpod sesbania   a                              
Shrub or Subshrub Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. red sesbania                   b   b          
Grass or Grasslike Setaria faberi Herrm. giant foxtail   a                     b b b    
Grass or Grasslike Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. foxtail millet                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes yellow foxtail                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila ssp. pallidefusca (Schumacher) B.K. Simon cattail grass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. green foxtail                         b b      
Forbs/Herbs Solanum carolinense L. horsenettle   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Solanum diphyllum L. twoleaf nightshade                       b          
Vines Solanum dulcamara L. bittersweet nightshade                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanaugh silverleaf nightshade   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Solanum jamaicense P. Mill. Jamaican nightshade                       b          
Vines Solanum tampicense Dunal wetland nightshade a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum torvum Sw. turkeyberry a       a a a         a          
Shrub or Subshrub Solanum viarum Dunal tropical soda apple a   a   a a a a a b b a a     a a
Grass or Grasslike Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. johnsongrass   a           a   b c   a a c a  
Aquatic Sparganium erectum L. branched burreed a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum (Graebn.) H. Hara simplestem bur-reed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Spermacoce alata Aubl. broadleaf buttonweed a       a a a                    
Vines Sphagneticola trilobata (L.C. Rich.) Pruski Bay Biscayne creeping-oxeye                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Spiraea japonica L. f. Japanese spiraea                         a b b b  
Aquatic Spirodela punctata (G.F.W. Mey.) C.H. Thompson                                  
Forbs/Herbs Stachys floridana Shuttlw. ex Benth. Florida betony           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin common chickweed                           b b    
Aquatic Stratiotes aloides L. water soldier       c                          
Forbs/Herbs Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze witchweed a         a                      
Forbs/Herbs Striga densiflora (Benth.) Benth. denseflower witchweed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke cowpea witchweed a       a a           a          
Forbs/Herbs Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth purple witchweed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Striga spp. Lour. witchweed a a     a a                      
Vines Syngonium podophyllum Schott American evergreen                       a          
Hardwood Trees Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Java plum                       a          
Hardwood Trees Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Malabar plum                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Talipariti tiliaceum var. tiliaceum L. sea hibiscus                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix gallica L. French tamarisk                   b              
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix spp. L. tamarisk                                  
Forbs/Herbs Tectaria incisa Cav. incised halberd fern                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Terminalia catappa L. tropical almond                       b          
Hardwood Trees Terminalia muelleri Benth. Australian almond                       b          
Hardwood Trees Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa portia tree                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link spreading hedgeparsley                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. white-flowered spiderwort                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia spathacea Sw. boatlily                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Tragopogon dubius Scop. western salsify                         c        
Aquatic Trapa natans L. European water chestnut       c a a                 c    
Hardwood Trees Triadica sebifera (L.) Small Chinese tallowtree     a       a a a a a a       a a
Vines Tribulus cistoides L. Jamaica feverplant                       b          
Vines Tribulus terrestris L. puncturevine           b             c        
Forbs/Herbs Tridax procumbens L. coat buttons a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Tussilago farfara L. coltsfoot       a                 b        
Hardwood Trees Ulmus pumila L. Siberian elm                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Urena lobata L. Caesarweed                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa mutica (Forsk.) T.Q. Nguyen paragrass                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa panicoides Beauvois liverseedgrass a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Urtica dioica L. stinging nettle                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Verbascum thapsus L. common mullein                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Verbena bonariensis L. tall vervain                   b              
Forbs/Herbs Verbena incompta P. W. Michael Brazilian vervain                               a  
Hardwood Trees Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw tungoil tree                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Veronica hederifolia L. ivyleaf speedwell                             b    
Grass or Grasslike Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small vetivergrass                               b  
Shrub or Subshrub Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. linden viburnum                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Vicia sativa Linnaeus common vetch                         b        
Vines Vinca major L. big periwinkle                     c       c   a
Forbs/Herbs Vinca minor L. common periwinkle                     c   b b c   a
Shrub or Subshrub Vitex rotundifolia L. f. beach vitex                     b            
Vines Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC. Japanese wisteria                     a   b   c b a
Vines Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC. Chinese wisteria                   a a b b   b b a
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spinosum L. spiny cocklebur                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spp. L. cocklebur   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium strumarium L. common cocklebur                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott arrowleaf elephant's ear                       b          


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The University of Georgia - Warnell School of Forest Resources and
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Dept. of Entomology
Last updated on Saturday, March 07, 2009 at 04:40 PM
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