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Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States

James H. Miller
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Erwin B. Chambliss
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Charles T. Bargeron
The Bugwood Network
The University of Georgia
Tifton Georgia

This is a compilation of invasive plants listed by any of the 13 Southern States and those by federal agencies pertaining to these States as of May 2004. Plants listed include those from the Federal Noxious Weed List as of September 2000, State laws (denoted as Laws), and State exotic pest plant councils (denoted as Lists). Currently, there are 7 States with noxious weed laws and 8 States with invasive plant lists. No lists were available for the states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

The USDA Forest Service Southern Region's "Regional forester's list and ranking structure: invasive exotic plant species of management concern (2001)" has been included as a "policy" that guides invasive management on National Forest lands. Also, included is the list of invasive plants being monitored by the USDA Forest Service and States Forestry Agencies as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis.

Please note: You may click on each of the headers below to resort the list. The scientific names are also hyperlinked to images and information about the plant.



Federal Noxious Weed List: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Arkansas: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LAW
a=Class A - Federally listed
b=Class B - Nonnative, in state serious threat
c=Class C - poses harm to industries
South Carolina: LAW
a=General list not categorized
North Carolina: LAW
a=Class A noxious weeds
b=Class B noxious weeds
Florida: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LIST
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LIST
a=Worst ten
Georgia: LIST
a=Top ten listed
b=Other important
Tennessee: LIST
a=Rank 1 Severe threat
b=Rank 2 Significant threat
c=Rank 3 Lesser threat
Watch Lists A&B not included
Kentucky: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Lesser threat
South Carolina: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Watch
Virginia: LIST
a=High Invasiveness
b=Medium Invasiveness
c=Low invasiveness
Florida: LIST
a=Category I altering plant community
b=Category II increased frequency but not altering plant community
USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and State Monitoring for Invasive Plants:
a=Monitored in 13 SE states
b=Monitored in Florida only
National Forest Service: POLICY
a=Category 1 species known to be invasive and persistent
b=Category 2 species suspected to be invasive

Growth Form Scientific Name Common Name US
law
AR
law
MS
law
AL
law
SC
law
NC
law
FL
law
  MS
list
AL
list
GA
list
SC
list
FL
list
TN
list
KY
list
VA
list
USFS
policy
USFS & State
Monitoring
Aquatic Sagittaria sagittifolia Linnaeus arrowhead a       a a                      
Aquatic Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. alligatorweed   a   c a     a a b   b b   c b  
Aquatic Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. sessile joyweed a       a a a         a          
Aquatic Pistia stratiotes L. water lettuce       c a             a       b  
Aquatic Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek                         b b      
Aquatic Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. parrotfeather       c         a b     b   c    
Aquatic Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian water-milfoil       d a b           b a   c b  
Aquatic Egeria densa Planch. Brazilian waterweed       c a               c   b b  
Aquatic Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle hydrilla a   a   a a     a a   a b   c a  
Aquatic Ottelia alismoides (Linnaeus) Pers. duck-lettuce a       a a                      
Aquatic Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss oxygen weed a       a a                      
Aquatic Stratiotes aloides L. water soldier       c                          
Aquatic Iris pseudacorus L. yellow iris                         c   b    
Aquatic Lythrum salicaria L. purple loosestrife   a   b a b   a     c   a a c a  
Aquatic Najas minor All. brittleleaf naiad       d a                        
Aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth anchored waterhyacinth a a     a a                      
Aquatic Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms common water hyacinth   a   c a     a   b   a       a  
Aquatic Sparganium erectum L. branched burreed a       a a                      
Aquatic Trapa natans L. European water chestnut       c a a                 c    
Aquatic Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell giant salvinia a   a   a a       b   a       a  
Aquatic Salvinia biloba Raddi lobed salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia auriculata Aublet eared salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia herzogii de la Sota Herzog salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia spp. Séguier watermoss                                  
Aquatic Azolla pinnata R. Brown feathered mosquito-fern a       a a                      
Aquatic Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardth Mediterranean clone of caulerpa a       a a                      
Aquatic Spirodela punctata (G.F.W. Mey.) C.H. Thompson                                  
Aquatic Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ktze. crested floating heart                       b          
Aquatic Potamogeton crispus L. curly-leaved pondweed       c                 b        
Conifer Trees Pinus thunbergiana Franco                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott arrowleaf elephant's ear                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle           b             b b c b  
Forbs/Herbs Carduus nutans L. musk thistle           b       b b   b a b b  
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. bull thistle                     b   b   b b  
Forbs/Herbs Carduus acanthoides L. spiny plumeless thistle           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo Russian knapweed         a                        
Forbs/Herbs Crupina vulgaris Cass. common crupina a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H.E. Robins. croftonweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieberstein wild safflower a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Tridax procumbens L. coat buttons a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders. miramar weed a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Agave sisalana Perrine sisal                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott coco yam, wild taro                     c a          
Forbs/Herbs Conium maculatum L. poison-hemlock                         b c c    
Forbs/Herbs Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier giant hogweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Daucus carota L. Queen Anne's lace, wild carrot                   b c   b b      
Forbs/Herbs Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill. fennel                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Pastinaca sativa L. wild parsnip                         c   c    
Forbs/Herbs Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link spreading hedgeparsley                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Vinca minor L. common periwinkle                     c   b b c   a
Forbs/Herbs Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin common chickweed                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Drymaria arenarioides Humboldt & Bonpland alfombrilla a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Agrostemma githago L corn cockle   a     a                        
Forbs/Herbs Dianthus armeria L. Deptford pink                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Arenaria serpyllifolia L. thymeleaf sandwort                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Tragopogon dubius Scop. western salsify                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Tussilago farfara L. coltsfoot       a                 b        
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spinosum L. spiny cocklebur                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium strumarium L. common cocklebur                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea dubia Suter ssp. vochinensis (Bernh. ex Rchb.) Hayek                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Cnicus benedictus L. blessed thistle         a                        
Forbs/Herbs Lactuca saligna L. willowleaf lettuce                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spp. L. cocklebur   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Senecio inaequidens DC. South African ragwort a                                
Forbs/Herbs Arctium minus Bernh. common burdock                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Artemisia vulgaris L. mugwort                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea cyanus L. cornflower                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea jacea L. brown knapweed                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Cichorium intybus L. chicory                         a a      
Forbs/Herbs Helianthus ciliaris DC. Texas blueweed   a     a                        
Forbs/Herbs Lapsana communis L. nipplewort                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. oxeye daisy                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Senecio madagascariensis Poir. Madagascar ragwort a                                
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl narrow swordfern                       a         b
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis brownii (Desv.) Hovenkamp & Miyam. Asian swordfern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Tectaria incisa Cav. incised halberd fern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia heterophylla L wild poinsettia         a   a                    
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Mascarene Island leaf-flower       c             c            
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus urinaria L. chamber bitter       c             c            
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia esula L. leafy spurge                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus album Medikus white sweetclover                         b a c    
Forbs/Herbs Galega officinalis L. goatsrue a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston corn gromwell                         c a      
Forbs/Herbs Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Bess. yellow fieldcress           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Microthlaspi perfoliatum (L.) F.K. Mey. thoroughwort pennycress                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande garlic mustard       a             c   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. yellow rocket                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Hesperis matronalis L. dames rocket                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Raphanus raphanistrum L. wild radish                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Crassula helmsii A. Berger swamp stonecrop           a                      
Forbs/Herbs Salsola vermiculata L. Mediterranean saltwort a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Chenopodium album L lambsquarters                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants mexicantea                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Hypericum perforatum L. common St. Johnswort                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz. marsh dayflower                     a   b   c    
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina communis L. Asiatic dayflower                           c c    
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. white-flowered spiderwort                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia spathacea Sw. boatlily                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Callisia fragrans (Lindl.) Woods basketplant                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Sesbania herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh bigpod sesbania   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby sicklepod                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Lotus corniculatus L. birdsfoot trefoil                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Medicago lupulina L. black medic                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. yellow sweet-clover                         b a c    
Forbs/Herbs Vicia sativa Linnaeus common vetch                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Crotalaria spp. L. rattlebox   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Lespedeza thunbergii (DC.) Nakai Thunberg lespedeza                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Indigofera hirsuta L. hairy indigo                                 b
Forbs/Herbs Homeria spp. Vent. cape tulip a         a                      
Forbs/Herbs Glechoma hederacea L. ground ivy                         c b b    
Forbs/Herbs Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton perilla mint                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Lamium amplexicaule L. henbit                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. motherwort                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Mentha x piperita L. (pro sp.) peppermint                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim. miniature beefsteakplant                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Nepeta cataria L. catnip                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Prunella vulgaris L. common selfheal                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Stachys floridana Shuttlw. ex Benth. Florida betony           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Ajuga reptans L. carpet bugle                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Aeschynomene virginica (L.) B.S.P northern jointvetch   a         a                    
Forbs/Herbs Fallopia japonica (Houttuyn) Ronse-Decraene Japanese knotweed       c           b b   a a c a  
Forbs/Herbs Emex australis Steinhall three-cornered jack a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Emex spinosa (Linnaeus) Campdera spiny emex a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum ssp. sylvestris (Huds.) Clapham Fuller's teasel                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus laciniatus L. cutleaf teasel                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Allium vineale L. wild garlic                         c   b b  
Forbs/Herbs Allium spp. L. onions   c                              
Forbs/Herbs Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum (Graebn.) H. Hara simplestem bur-reed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Verbena incompta P. W. Michael Brazilian vervain                               a  
Forbs/Herbs Verbena bonariensis L. tall vervain                   b              
Forbs/Herbs Urtica dioica L. stinging nettle                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke Indian mock-strawberry                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend. piedmont bedstraw                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Verbascum thapsus L. common mullein                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze witchweed a         a                      
Forbs/Herbs Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth purple witchweed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke cowpea witchweed a       a a           a          
Forbs/Herbs Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume limnophila a       a a           b          
Forbs/Herbs Striga spp. Lour. witchweed a a     a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Striga densiflora (Benth.) Benth. denseflower witchweed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Veronica hederifolia L. ivyleaf speedwell                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Spermacoce alata Aubl. broadleaf buttonweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Solanum torvum Sw. turkeyberry a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanaugh silverleaf nightshade   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Solanum jamaicense P. Mill. Jamaican nightshade                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum carolinense L. horsenettle   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Solanum diphyllum L. twoleaf nightshade                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Potentilla recta L. sulfur cinquefoil                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Ranunculus bulbosus L. bulbous buttercup                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) K. Presl ex Kunth monochoria a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms arrowleaved monochoria a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa Oriental lady's thumb                         b b b b  
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray ladysthumb                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Rumex acetosella L. red sorrel                           c b    
Forbs/Herbs Rumex crispus L. curly dock                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Rumex spp. L. dock   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Lysimachia nummularia L. creeping yellow loosestrife, creeping Jenney                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Pteris vittata L. ladder brake                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Ficaria verna Huds. lesser celandine, fig buttercup                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Plantago aristata Michx. bracted plantain   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Plantago lanceolata L. buckhorn plantain   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai mulberryweed       c                 c        
Forbs/Herbs Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. tawny daylily                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Asphodelus fistulosus Linnaeus onionweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Securigera varia (L.) Lassen purple crown-vetch                         b a c b  
Forbs/Herbs Urena lobata L. Caesarweed                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Ornithogalum umbellatum L. star-of-Bethlehem       c     a           c b      
Forbs/Herbs Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce iguanatail                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Liriope muscari (Dcne.) Bailey monkeygrass                     c            
Forbs/Herbs Ludwigia grandiflora ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz water primrose         c                        
Forbs/Herbs Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. monk orchid                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche crenata Forsk. crenate broomrape a                                
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche minor Smith small broomrape a       a a       b   a          
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche cernua Loefl. [excluded] nodding broomrape a                                
Forbs/Herbs Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel branched broomrape a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche spp. L. broomrape a           a                    
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia spp. L. aeginetia a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Alectra spp. Thunb. alectra a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia indica L. ye gu a                                
Forbs/Herbs Melasma melampyroides (Rich.) Pennell ex Britton & P.Wilson yerba de hierro a                                
Forbs/Herbs Eschscholzia californica Cham California poppy                         a        
Forbs/Herbs Oxalis stricta L. yellow woodsorrel                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. cogongrass a a a   a a a a a b c a     c a a
Grass or Grasslike Arundo donax L. giant reed                   b b   c   b    
Grass or Grasslike Festuca arundinacea Schreb. tall fescue             a     b b   b c b a a
Grass or Grasslike Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus Japanese stiltgrass       c           a a   a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Chinese silvergrass                   b b   b a c b a
Grass or Grasslike Panicum repens L. torpedograss       c           b   a       a  
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Grass or Grasslike Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière golden bamboo                   a b b     b   a
Grass or Grasslike Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. johnsongrass   a           a   b c   a a c a  
Grass or Grasslike Dactylis glomerata L. orchardgrass                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. kikuyugrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza punctata Kotzchy ex Steud. red rice a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. & Roehr. longstamen rice a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees Chinese sprangletop a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Nassella trichotoma Hackel ex Arech. serrated tussock a a     a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila ssp. pallidefusca (Schumacher) B.K. Simon cattail grass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Saccharum spontaneum L. wild sugarcane a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum macrourum Trinius African feathergrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum scrobiculatum Linnaeus ricegrass paspalum a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton itchgrass a a a   a a a     b              
Grass or Grasslike Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury saramollagrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. pilipiliula a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria velutina (Forsk.) Beauv. velvet fingergrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza rufipogon Griffiths brown-beard rice a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum Trinius kyasumagrass a       a   a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion (Linnaeus) Schultes mission grass a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Avena sterilis Linnaeus sterile oat a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria abyssinica (A. Rich) Stapf African couchgrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Imperata brasiliensis Trinius Brazilian satintail a   c   a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa panicoides Beauvois liverseedgrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J.& K. Presl tall oatgrass                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Bromus arvensis L. field brome                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus catharticus Vahl rescuegrass                         c        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus racemosus L. bald brome   a                     b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus inermis Leyss. smooth brome                         c b   b  
Grass or Grasslike Bromus secalinus L. rye brome   a                     b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus tectorum L. cheatgrass                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers bermudagrass   a               b              
Grass or Grasslike Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv barnyardgrass   a                       c      
Grass or Grasslike Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. goosegrass                           b      
Grass or Grasslike Elymus repens (L.) Gould quackgrass                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen stinkgrass                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Holcus lanatus L. common velvetgrass                           c b    
Grass or Grasslike Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees West Indian marsh grass                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Festuca pratensis Huds. meadow fescue                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Melinis minutiflora Beauv. molassesgrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka natalgrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex A.S. Hitchc. burmareed                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Oryza sativa L. rice   a     a                        
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum notatum Flueggé bahiagrass                     b            
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum ssp. unispiculum Brunken Kyasuma grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion ssp. setosum (Sw.) Brunken mission grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher elephant grass             a         a         b
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum setaceum (Forsk.) Chiov. crimson fountaingrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Phleum pratense L. timothy           a               c c    
Grass or Grasslike Poa annua L. annual bluegrass                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Poa compressa L. Canada bluegrass                           c b    
Grass or Grasslike Poa pratensis L. Kentucky bluegrass                           b      
Grass or Grasslike Poa trivialis L. roughstalk bluegrass                             b    
Grass or Grasslike Setaria faberi Herrm. giant foxtail   a                     b b b    
Grass or Grasslike Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. foxtail millet                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes yellow foxtail                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. green foxtail                         b b      
Grass or Grasslike Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) R. Webster guineagrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa mutica (Forsk.) T.Q. Nguyen paragrass                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Grass or Grasslike Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small vetivergrass                               b  
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis gigantea Roth redtop                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass                             b    
Grass or Grasslike Lolium temulentum L. poison ryegrass   a     a                        
Grass or Grasslike Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C.E. Hubbard limpograss                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus involucratus Rottb umbrella plant                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus prolifer Lam miniature flatsedge                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus rotundus L. purple nutsedge   a                              
Grass or Grasslike Carex kobomugi Ohwi Japanese sedge                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus entrerianus Boeckl. deeprooted sedge                     c            
Hardwood Trees Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa portia tree                       a          
Hardwood Trees Ficus altissima Blume council tree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Melia azedarach L. chinaberry                   b b a c   b   a
Hardwood Trees Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. paper-mulberry                       b c        
Hardwood Trees Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. rose myrtle             a         a       a b
Hardwood Trees Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Java plum                       a          
Hardwood Trees Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Malabar plum                       b          
Hardwood Trees Ardisia elliptica Thunb shoebutton ardisia                       a          
Hardwood Trees Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake melaleuca a       a a a         a         a
Hardwood Trees Morus alba L. white mulberry                           b c    
Hardwood Trees Cestrum diurnum L. day jessamine                       b          
Hardwood Trees Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. carrotwood             a         a         b
Hardwood Trees Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana (Hayata) F.G. Mey. flamegold                       b          
Hardwood Trees Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen sapodilla                       a          
Hardwood Trees Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. princesstree                   b b   a b b   a
Hardwood Trees Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle tree-of-heaven         b               a a c a a
Hardwood Trees Murraya exotica L. Chinese box                       b          
Hardwood Trees Citrus reticulata Blanco tangerine         a                        
Hardwood Trees Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. trifoliate orange                     c            
Hardwood Trees Pyrus calleryana Decne. Callery pear (Bradford pear)                     c            
Hardwood Trees Ulmus pumila L. Siberian elm                             c    
Hardwood Trees Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Asian nakedwood                       a          
Hardwood Trees Populus alba L. white poplar                         b b b    
Hardwood Trees Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth woman's tongue tree                       a          
Hardwood Trees Adenanthera pavonina L red beadtree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruscifolia Griesbach vinal a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis sericantha Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. albardon a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis castellanosii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit white leadtree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Prosopis fiebrigii Harms mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis hassleri Harms ex Hassler algarrobo paraguayo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis humilis Gillies ex Hooker & Arnott algarrobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis palmeri S. Watson palo de hierro a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis kuntzei Harms ex Hassler barbe de tigre a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis rojasiana Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis torquata (Cavan. ex Lagasca y Segura) DC. lata a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruizlealii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis farcta (Banks & Soland.) J.F. Macbr. Syrian mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis alpataco R. A. Philippi alapataco a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis velutina Woot. velvet mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis argentina Burkart algarobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis burkartii Muñoz mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis caldenia Burkart calden a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis calingastana Burkart cusqui a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis denudans Bentham algarrobo patagonica a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis elata (Burkart) Burkart algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ferox Griesbach churqui a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis campestris Griesbach algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Quercus acutissima Carruthers sawtooth oak                             b    
Hardwood Trees Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. Indian rosewood                       b          
Hardwood Trees Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl camphortree                       a       a  
Hardwood Trees Prosopis spp. L. mesquite         a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Calophyllum antillanum Britt Antilles calophyllum                       a          
Hardwood Trees Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. fragrant manjack                       b          
Hardwood Trees Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth kiawe a                                
Hardwood Trees Albizia julibrissin Durazz. mimosa                   a b a a b b a a
Hardwood Trees Bischofia javanica Blume Javanese bishopwood                       a          
Hardwood Trees Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw tungoil tree                       a          
Hardwood Trees Triadica sebifera (L.) Small Chinese tallowtree     a       a a a a a a       a a
Hardwood Trees Terminalia muelleri Benth. Australian almond                       b          
Hardwood Trees Casuarina equisetifolia L. Australian-pine                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. river sheoak                       b         b
Hardwood Trees Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng gray sheoak                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. trumpet-tree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Alstonia macrophylla Wallich ex G. Don deviltree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Ochrosia elliptica Labill. elliptic yellowwood                       b          
Hardwood Trees Acer platanoides L. Norway maple                             b    
Hardwood Trees Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian peppertree             a         a         b
Hardwood Trees Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret Seifriz's chamaedorea                                
Hardwood Trees Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) H.A.T. Harms octopus tree                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Phoenix reclinata Jacq. Senegal date palm                       b          
Hardwood Trees Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R. Br. ex Mart. fountain palm                       b          
Hardwood Trees Ptychosperma elegans (R. Br.) Blume ptychosperma                       b          
Palms Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc. queen palm                                
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton glossy privet                       a       a  
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. border privet                             b    
Shrub or Subshrub Ludwigia uruguayensis Camb.) Hara Uruguay waterprimrose         a b                      
Shrub or Subshrub Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz hiptage                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Talipariti tiliaceum var. tiliaceum L. sea hibiscus                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Asparagus aethiopicus L. Sprenger's asparagus fern                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Melastoma malabathricum L. Banks melastoma a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. Japanese privet                     a   b     a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum sinense Lour. Chinese privet               a a a a a a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum vulgare L. European privet                         a a   a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ficus microcarpus Vahl.                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Ardisia crenata Sims coral ardisia                       a       b b
Shrub or Subshrub Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam cherry                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium cattleianum Sabine strawberry guava                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium guajava L. guava                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa multiflora Thunb. multiflora rose       c         a b a   a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. wine raspberry                         c   c    
Shrub or Subshrub Spiraea japonica L. f. Japanese spiraea                         a b b b  
Shrub or Subshrub Lycium ferocessimum Miers African boxthorn a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub Chinese fleecevine                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Solanum viarum Dunal tropical soda apple a   a   a a a a a b b a a     a a
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus fruticosus L. European blackberry a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus moluccanus L. Molucca raspberry a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl. Macartney rose                 a               a
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa laevigata Michx. Cherokee rose                 a               a
Shrub or Subshrub Vitex rotundifolia L. f. beach vitex                     b            
Shrub or Subshrub Lantana camara L. largeleaf lantana                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight Chinese parasoltree                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix spp. L. tamarisk                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix gallica L. French tamarisk                   b              
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. autumn olive                   a a   a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Russian olive                     a   c   c b a
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. thorny olive                     a b a   c b a
Shrub or Subshrub Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunningham ex Benth. earleaf acacia                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis strombulifera (Lamarck) Bentham Argentine screwbean a                                
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Bauhinia variegata L mountain ebony                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa pellita Kunth ex Willd. catclaw mimosa a       a a a         a       b  
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle giant sensitiveplant a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr governor's plum                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Scaevola taccada Vahl beach naupaka                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. red sesbania                   b   b          
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis reptans var. cinerascens (A. Gray) Burkart tornillo a                                
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder Amur honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera morrowii Gray Morrow's honeysuckle                         a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera tatarica L. Tatarian honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera x bella Zabel [morrowii × tatarica] showy fly honeysuckle, Bell's honeysuckle                         a   c    
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera standishii Jacques Standish's honeysuckle                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. linden viburnum                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Ruellia simplex C. Wright Britton's wild petunia                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D. Austin gloria de la manana                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese barberry                         b b b a  
Shrub or Subshrub Nandina domestica Thunb. sacred bamboo                   b b a b     b a
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carr. leatherleaf mahonia                     b   b        
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt Oregon grape                     b            
Shrub or Subshrub Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. winged burning bush                     c   b a c   a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton sweet breath of spring                     c   a   c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link Scotch broom                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. shrubby lespedeza                   b b   b b c   a
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don sericea lespedeza                   b c   a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Flueggea acidoton (L.) G.L. Webster simpleleaf bushweed                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Ricinus communis L. castorbean                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Terminalia catappa L. tropical almond                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Opuntia aurantiaca Lindley jointed prickly pear a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. cathedral bells                       b          
Vines Cuscuta spp. L. dodder a a     a a a                    
Vines Cuscuta japonica Choisy Japanese dodder a                   c            
Vines Cuscuta megalocarpa Rydb bigfruit dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta potosina Schaffn globe dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta potosina var. globifera Yunck. globe dodder a                                
Vines Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida kudzu     a       a a a a a a a a c a a
Vines Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC. Japanese wisteria                     a   b   c b a
Vines Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC. Chinese wisteria                   a a b b   b b a
Vines Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H. Gentry catclaw-vine                       a       b b
Vines Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. Japanese hop                             b    
Vines Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. oriental bittersweet           c         c   a a c a a
Vines Begonia cucullata Willd clubed begonia                       b          
Vines Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Maz. winter creeper                   b c   a a b a a
Vines Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. ivyleaf morningglory                           b b    
Vines Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed   a                       c b    
Vines Calystegia sepium ssp. sepium (L.) R. Br. hedge false bindweed   a                              
Vines Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. swamp morningglory a       a a           a          
Vines Ipomoea coccinea L. red morningglory                             c    
Vines Ipomoea lacunosa L. pitted morningglory                           c      
Vines Ipomoea triloba L. threelobe morningglory         a   a         a          
Vines Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle Spanish arborvine                       b          
Vines Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth tall morningglory                           b b    
Vines Ipomoea spp. L. morningglory   a                              
Vines Vinca major L. big periwinkle                     c       c   a
Vines Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders Chinese violet                       b          
Vines Hedera helix L. English ivy                   b b   a b b b a
Vines Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl centipede tongavine                       b          
Vines Syngonium podophyllum Schott American evergreen                       a          
Vines Aristolochia elegans Mast. elegant dutchman's pipe                       b          
Vines Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Dcne. Madagascar rubbervine                       b          
Vines Mikania micrantha Kunth mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Vines Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B.L. Robins. African mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Vines Sphagneticola trilobata (L.C. Rich.) Pruski Bay Biscayne creeping-oxeye                       b          
Vines Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese honeysuckle               a   a a a a a c a a
Vines Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross mile-a-minute vine       a c a                 c b  
Vines Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Irwin & Barneby valamuerto                       a          
Vines Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne. chocolate vine                           b b    
Vines Abrus precatorius L. rosarypea                       a         b
Vines Dioscorea bulbifera L. air-potato       a     a         a       a a
Vines Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Chinese yam                     c   a a c a a
Vines Dioscorea alata L. winged yam             a         a       a a
Vines Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv. porcelain-berry                             c b  
Vines Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw. Japanese climbing fern       b     a   a b b a       a a
Vines Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. old world climbing fern       a     a         a       a b
Vines Tribulus terrestris L. puncturevine           b             c        
Vines Tribulus cistoides L. Jamaica feverplant                       b          
Vines Paederia cruddasiana Prain sewer vine             a         a         b
Vines Cardiospermum halicacabum L. balloonvine   a   c a               c   b    
Vines Paederia foetida L. skunk-vine       b     a         a       a  
Vines Solanum tampicense Dunal wetland nightshade a       a a a         a          
Vines Solanum dulcamara L. bittersweet nightshade                           a      
Vines Clematis terniflora DC sweet autumn virginsbower                     c   b        
Vines Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. coral vine                       b          
Vines Passiflora biflora Lam. twoflower passionflower                       b          
Vines Passiflora foetida L. redfruit passionflower                       b          
Vines Jasminum dichotomum Vahl Gold Coast jasmine                       a          
Vines Jasminum fluminense Vell. Brazilian jasmine                       a          
Vines Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. Arabian jasmine                       b          


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The University of Georgia - Warnell School of Forest Resources and
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Dept. of Entomology
Last updated on Saturday, March 07, 2009 at 04:40 PM
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