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Invasive Plants of the Thirteen Southern States

James H. Miller
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Erwin B. Chambliss
Southern Research Station
USDA Forest Service
Auburn Alabama

Charles T. Bargeron
The Bugwood Network
The University of Georgia
Tifton Georgia

This is a compilation of invasive plants listed by any of the 13 Southern States and those by federal agencies pertaining to these States as of May 2004. Plants listed include those from the Federal Noxious Weed List as of September 2000, State laws (denoted as Laws), and State exotic pest plant councils (denoted as Lists). Currently, there are 7 States with noxious weed laws and 8 States with invasive plant lists. No lists were available for the states of Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

The USDA Forest Service Southern Region's "Regional forester's list and ranking structure: invasive exotic plant species of management concern (2001)" has been included as a "policy" that guides invasive management on National Forest lands. Also, included is the list of invasive plants being monitored by the USDA Forest Service and States Forestry Agencies as part of the Forest Inventory and Analysis.

Please note: You may click on each of the headers below to resort the list. The scientific names are also hyperlinked to images and information about the plant.



Federal Noxious Weed List: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Arkansas: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LAW
a=Class A - Federally listed
b=Class B - Nonnative, in state serious threat
c=Class C - poses harm to industries
South Carolina: LAW
a=General list not categorized
North Carolina: LAW
a=Class A noxious weeds
b=Class B noxious weeds
Florida: LAW
a=General list not categorized
Mississippi: LIST
a=General list not categorized
Alabama: LIST
a=Worst ten
Georgia: LIST
a=Top ten listed
b=Other important
Tennessee: LIST
a=Rank 1 Severe threat
b=Rank 2 Significant threat
c=Rank 3 Lesser threat
Watch Lists A&B not included
Kentucky: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Lesser threat
South Carolina: LIST
a=Severe threat
b=Significant threat
c=Watch
Virginia: LIST
a=High Invasiveness
b=Medium Invasiveness
c=Low invasiveness
Florida: LIST
a=Category I altering plant community
b=Category II increased frequency but not altering plant community
USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis and State Monitoring for Invasive Plants:
a=Monitored in 13 SE states
b=Monitored in Florida only
National Forest Service: POLICY
a=Category 1 species known to be invasive and persistent
b=Category 2 species suspected to be invasive

Growth Form Scientific Name Common Name US
law
AR
law
MS
law
AL
law
SC
law
NC
law
FL
law
  MS
list
AL
list
GA
list
SC
list
FL
list
TN
list
KY
list
VA
list
USFS
policy
USFS & State
Monitoring
Aquatic Spirodela punctata (G.F.W. Mey.) C.H. Thompson                                  
Aquatic Salvinia spp. Séguier watermoss                                  
Aquatic Nymphoides cristata (Roxb.) O. Ktze. crested floating heart                       b          
Aquatic Stratiotes aloides L. water soldier       c                          
Aquatic Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek                         b b      
Aquatic Potamogeton crispus L. curly-leaved pondweed       c                 b        
Aquatic Iris pseudacorus L. yellow iris                         c   b    
Aquatic Lagarosiphon major (Ridley) Moss oxygen weed a       a a                      
Aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Swartz) Kunth anchored waterhyacinth a a     a a                      
Aquatic Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardth Mediterranean clone of caulerpa a       a a                      
Aquatic Sparganium erectum L. branched burreed a       a a                      
Aquatic Ottelia alismoides (Linnaeus) Pers. duck-lettuce a       a a                      
Aquatic Salvinia biloba Raddi lobed salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia auriculata Aublet eared salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Salvinia herzogii de la Sota Herzog salvinia a       a a       b              
Aquatic Azolla pinnata R. Brown feathered mosquito-fern a       a a                      
Aquatic Sagittaria sagittifolia Linnaeus arrowhead a       a a                      
Aquatic Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC. sessile joyweed a       a a a         a          
Aquatic Trapa natans L. European water chestnut       c a a                 c    
Aquatic Lythrum salicaria L. purple loosestrife   a   b a b   a     c   a a c a  
Aquatic Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc. parrotfeather       c         a b     b   c    
Aquatic Myriophyllum spicatum L. Eurasian water-milfoil       d a b           b a   c b  
Aquatic Najas minor All. brittleleaf naiad       d a                        
Aquatic Pistia stratiotes L. water lettuce       c a             a       b  
Aquatic Egeria densa Planch. Brazilian waterweed       c a               c   b b  
Aquatic Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms common water hyacinth   a   c a     a   b   a       a  
Aquatic Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle hydrilla a   a   a a     a a   a b   c a  
Aquatic Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell giant salvinia a   a   a a       b   a       a  
Aquatic Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. alligatorweed   a   c a     a a b   b b   c b  
Conifer Trees Pinus thunbergiana Franco                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Liriope muscari (Dcne.) Bailey monkeygrass                     c            
Forbs/Herbs Ludwigia grandiflora ssp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) Nesom & Kartesz water primrose         c                        
Forbs/Herbs Microthlaspi perfoliatum (L.) F.K. Mey. thoroughwort pennycress                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Senecio inaequidens DC. South African ragwort a                                
Forbs/Herbs Homeria spp. Vent. cape tulip a         a                      
Forbs/Herbs Verbena bonariensis L. tall vervain                   b              
Forbs/Herbs Veronica hederifolia L. ivyleaf speedwell                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spp. L. cocklebur   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Ajuga reptans L. carpet bugle                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Allium spp. L. onions   c                              
Forbs/Herbs Arenaria serpyllifolia L. thymeleaf sandwort                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea dubia Suter ssp. vochinensis (Bernh. ex Rchb.) Hayek                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Crotalaria spp. L. rattlebox   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Cnicus benedictus L. blessed thistle         a                        
Forbs/Herbs Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend. piedmont bedstraw                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Lactuca saligna L. willowleaf lettuce                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Lespedeza thunbergii (DC.) Nakai Thunberg lespedeza                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. Mascarene Island leaf-flower       c             c            
Forbs/Herbs Rumex spp. L. dock   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Vicia sativa Linnaeus common vetch                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium spinosum L. spiny cocklebur                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Xanthium strumarium L. common cocklebur                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Callisia fragrans (Lindl.) Woods basketplant                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Indigofera hirsuta L. hairy indigo                                 b
Forbs/Herbs Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott arrowleaf elephant's ear                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Tectaria incisa Cav. incised halberd fern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum diphyllum L. twoleaf nightshade                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum jamaicense P. Mill. Jamaican nightshade                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Sparganium erectum ssp. stoloniferum (Graebn.) H. Hara simplestem bur-reed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Verbena incompta P. W. Michael Brazilian vervain                               a  
Forbs/Herbs Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link spreading hedgeparsley                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Tragopogon dubius Scop. western salsify                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia fluminensis Vell. white-flowered spiderwort                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Tradescantia spathacea Sw. boatlily                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Tussilago farfara L. coltsfoot       a                 b        
Forbs/Herbs Urtica dioica L. stinging nettle                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Urena lobata L. Caesarweed                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Bess. yellow fieldcress           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Rumex acetosella L. red sorrel                           c b    
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria longiseta (Bruijn) Kitagawa Oriental lady's thumb                         b b b b  
Forbs/Herbs Pteris vittata L. ladder brake                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Ranunculus bulbosus L. bulbous buttercup                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Raphanus raphanistrum L. wild radish                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Rumex crispus L. curly dock                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Sansevieria hyacinthoides (L.) Druce iguanatail                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Persicaria maculosa S.F. Gray ladysthumb                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Prunella vulgaris L. common selfheal                           a      
Forbs/Herbs Senecio madagascariensis Poir. Madagascar ragwort a                                
Forbs/Herbs Senna obtusifolia (L.) Irwin & Barneby sicklepod                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Solanum carolinense L. horsenettle   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Sesbania herbacea (P. Mill.) McVaugh bigpod sesbania   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Striga densiflora (Benth.) Benth. denseflower witchweed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Stachys floridana Shuttlw. ex Benth. Florida betony           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Pastinaca sativa L. wild parsnip                         c   c    
Forbs/Herbs Mosla dianthera (Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.) Maxim. miniature beefsteakplant                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Phyllanthus urinaria L. chamber bitter       c             c            
Forbs/Herbs Plantago aristata Michx. bracted plantain   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Plantago lanceolata L. buckhorn plantain   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Ornithogalum umbellatum L. star-of-Bethlehem       c     a           c b      
Forbs/Herbs Oxalis stricta L. yellow woodsorrel                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Nepeta cataria L. catnip                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl narrow swordfern                       a         b
Forbs/Herbs Nephrolepis brownii (Desv.) Hovenkamp & Miyam. Asian swordfern                       a          
Forbs/Herbs Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. oxeye daisy                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. yellow sweet-clover                         b a c    
Forbs/Herbs Mentha x piperita L. (pro sp.) peppermint                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Lysimachia nummularia L. creeping yellow loosestrife, creeping Jenney                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Medicago lupulina L. black medic                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Fatoua villosa (Thunb.) Nakai mulberryweed       c                 c        
Forbs/Herbs Helianthus ciliaris DC. Texas blueweed   a     a                        
Forbs/Herbs Eschscholzia californica Cham California poppy                         a        
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia heterophylla L wild poinsettia         a   a                    
Forbs/Herbs Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill. fennel                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Dianthus armeria L. Deptford pink                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum ssp. sylvestris (Huds.) Clapham                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus laciniatus L. cutleaf teasel                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Hesperis matronalis L. dames rocket                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Lotus corniculatus L. birdsfoot trefoil                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. monk orchid                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino Korean lespedeza                         c b      
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. common lespedeza                         c b   b  
Forbs/Herbs Lamium amplexicaule L. henbit                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Lapsana communis L. nipplewort                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Leonurus cardiaca L. motherwort                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Daucus carota L. Queen Anne's lace, wild carrot                   b c   b b      
Forbs/Herbs Commelina communis L. Asiatic dayflower                           c c    
Forbs/Herbs Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott coco yam, wild taro                     c a          
Forbs/Herbs Crassula helmsii A. Berger swamp stonecrop           a                      
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea jacea L. brown knapweed                             b    
Forbs/Herbs Chenopodium album L lambsquarters                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants mexicantea                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea cyanus L. cornflower                         c        
Forbs/Herbs Cichorium intybus L. chicory                         a a      
Forbs/Herbs Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. yellow rocket                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnston corn gromwell                         c a      
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia indica L. ye gu a                                
Forbs/Herbs Aeschynomene virginica (L.) B.S.P northern jointvetch   a         a                    
Forbs/Herbs Agrostemma githago L corn cockle   a     a                        
Forbs/Herbs Melasma melampyroides (Rich.) Pennell ex Britton & P.Wilson yerba de hierro a                                
Forbs/Herbs Arctium minus Bernh. common burdock                           b      
Forbs/Herbs Artemisia vulgaris L. mugwort                         b   b    
Forbs/Herbs Allium vineale L. wild garlic                         c   b b  
Forbs/Herbs Striga spp. Lour. witchweed a a     a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Emex australis Steinhall three-cornered jack a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Emex spinosa (Linnaeus) Campdera spiny emex a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Forbs/Herbs Commelina benghalensis L. Benghal dayflower a   c   a a a     b c a          
Forbs/Herbs Drymaria arenarioides Humboldt & Bonpland alfombrilla a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieberstein wild safflower a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Tridax procumbens L. coat buttons a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche spp. L. broomrape a           a                    
Forbs/Herbs Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze witchweed a         a                      
Forbs/Herbs Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth purple witchweed a                                
Forbs/Herbs Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke cowpea witchweed a       a a           a          
Forbs/Herbs Phelipanche ramosa (L.) Pomel branched broomrape a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Hygrophila polysperma (Roxb.) T. Anders. miramar weed a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Salsola vermiculata L. Mediterranean saltwort a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Crupina vulgaris Cass. common crupina a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Potentilla recta L. sulfur cinquefoil                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) K. Presl ex Kunth monochoria a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms arrowleaved monochoria a       a a                      
Forbs/Herbs Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H.E. Robins. croftonweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume limnophila a       a a           b          
Forbs/Herbs Galega officinalis L. goatsrue a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier giant hogweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Aeginetia spp. L. aeginetia a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Alectra spp. Thunb. alectra a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Asphodelus fistulosus Linnaeus onionweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Verbascum thapsus L. common mullein                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Vinca minor L. common periwinkle                     c   b b c   a
Forbs/Herbs Stellaria pallida (Dumort.) Crépin common chickweed                           b b    
Forbs/Herbs Hypericum perforatum L. common St. Johnswort                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Agave sisalana Perrine sisal                       b          
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. bull thistle                     b   b   b b  
Forbs/Herbs Carduus acanthoides L. spiny plumeless thistle           b                      
Forbs/Herbs Euphorbia esula L. leafy spurge                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. tawny daylily                           c      
Forbs/Herbs Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton perilla mint                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Fallopia japonica (Houttuyn) Ronse-Decraene Japanese knotweed       c           b b   a a c a  
Forbs/Herbs Conium maculatum L. poison-hemlock                         b c c    
Forbs/Herbs Rhaponticum repens (L.) Hidalgo Russian knapweed         a                        
Forbs/Herbs Spermacoce alata Aubl. broadleaf buttonweed a       a a a                    
Forbs/Herbs Solanum torvum Sw. turkeyberry a       a a a         a          
Forbs/Herbs Solanum elaeagnifolium Cavanaugh silverleaf nightshade   a                              
Forbs/Herbs Ficaria verna Huds. lesser celandine, fig buttercup                             c    
Forbs/Herbs Melilotus albus Medikus white sweetclover                         b a c    
Forbs/Herbs Murdannia keisak (Hassk.) Hand.-Maz. marsh dayflower                     a   b   c    
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel                         b        
Forbs/Herbs Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle           b             b b c b  
Forbs/Herbs Glechoma hederacea L. ground ivy                         c b b    
Forbs/Herbs Carduus nutans L. musk thistle           b       b b   b a b b  
Forbs/Herbs Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande garlic mustard       a             c   a a c a a
Forbs/Herbs Securigera varia (L.) Lassen purple crown-vetch                         b a c b  
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche crenata Forsk. crenate broomrape a                                
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche minor Smith small broomrape a       a a       b   a          
Forbs/Herbs Orobanche cernua Loefl. [excluded] nodding broomrape a                                
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Forbs/Herbs Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek spotted knapweed                         b b c    
Grass or Grasslike Arundo donax L. giant reed                   b b   c   b    
Grass or Grasslike Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. cogongrass a a a   a a a a a b c a     c a a
Grass or Grasslike Festuca arundinacea Schreb. tall fescue             a     b b   b c b a a
Grass or Grasslike Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus Japanese stiltgrass       c           a a   a a c a a
Grass or Grasslike Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Chinese silvergrass                   b b   b a c b a
Grass or Grasslike Panicum repens L. torpedograss       c           b   a       a  
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Grass or Grasslike Phragmites australis (Cavanilles) Trinius ex Steudel common reed       c a         b a   a a c    
Grass or Grasslike Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivière golden bamboo                   a b b     b   a
Grass or Grasslike Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. johnsongrass   a           a   b c   a a c a  
Grass or Grasslike Dactylis glomerata L. orchardgrass                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza punctata Kotzchy ex Steud. red rice a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. kikuyugrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. & Roehr. longstamen rice a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Avena sterilis Linnaeus sterile oat a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Oryza rufipogon Griffiths brown-beard rice a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum Trinius kyasumagrass a       a   a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion (Linnaeus) Schultes mission grass a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila ssp. pallidefusca (Schumacher) B.K. Simon cattail grass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Saccharum spontaneum L. wild sugarcane a       a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum macrourum Trinius African feathergrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum scrobiculatum Linnaeus ricegrass paspalum a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) W.D. Clayton itchgrass a a a   a a a     b              
Grass or Grasslike Ischaemum rugosum Salisbury saramollagrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin. pilipiliula a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria velutina (Forsk.) Beauv. velvet fingergrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees Chinese sprangletop a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Nassella trichotoma Hackel ex Arech. serrated tussock a a     a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Digitaria abyssinica (A. Rich) Stapf African couchgrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Imperata brasiliensis Trinius Brazilian satintail a   c   a a a         a          
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa panicoides Beauvois liverseedgrass a       a a a                    
Grass or Grasslike Bromus arvensis L. field brome                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus catharticus Vahl rescuegrass                         c        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus racemosus L. bald brome   a                     b        
Grass or Grasslike Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. ex J.& K. Presl tall oatgrass                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Arthraxon hispidus (Thunb.) Makino small carpetgrass, joint-head grass                         b b b b  
Grass or Grasslike Holcus lanatus L. common velvetgrass                           c b    
Grass or Grasslike Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees West Indian marsh grass                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv barnyardgrass   a                       c      
Grass or Grasslike Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. goosegrass                           b      
Grass or Grasslike Elymus repens (L.) Gould quackgrass                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers bermudagrass   a               b              
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus involucratus Rottb umbrella plant                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus prolifer Lam miniature flatsedge                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus rotundus L. purple nutsedge   a                              
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen stinkgrass                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Bromus secalinus L. rye brome   a                     b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus tectorum L. cheatgrass                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Bromus inermis Leyss. smooth brome                         c b   b  
Grass or Grasslike Poa compressa L. Canada bluegrass                           c b    
Grass or Grasslike Paspalum notatum Flueggé bahiagrass                     b            
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum pedicellatum ssp. unispiculum Brunken Kyasuma grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum polystachion ssp. setosum (Sw.) Brunken mission grass a                                
Grass or Grasslike Pennisetum purpureum Schumacher elephant grass             a         a         b
Grass or Grasslike Cenchrus setaceus (Forssk.) Morrone crimson fountaingrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Phleum pratense L. timothy           a               c c    
Grass or Grasslike Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex A.S. Hitchc. burmareed                       a          
Grass or Grasslike Oryza sativa L. rice   a     a                        
Grass or Grasslike Festuca pratensis Huds. meadow fescue                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Melinis minutiflora Beauv. molassesgrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Melinis repens (Willd.) Zizka natalgrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Poa annua L. annual bluegrass                           c      
Grass or Grasslike Poa pratensis L. Kentucky bluegrass                           b      
Grass or Grasslike Poa trivialis L. roughstalk bluegrass                             b    
Grass or Grasslike Setaria faberi Herrm. giant foxtail   a                     b b b    
Grass or Grasslike Setaria italica (L.) Beauv. foxtail millet                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roemer & J.A. Schultes yellow foxtail                         b        
Grass or Grasslike Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. green foxtail                         b b      
Grass or Grasslike Hemarthria altissima (Poir.) Stapf & C.E. Hubbard limpograss                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Cyperus entrerianus Boeckl. deeprooted sedge                     c            
Grass or Grasslike Carex kobomugi Ohwi Japanese sedge                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis capillaris L. colonial bentgrass                             b    
Grass or Grasslike Lolium temulentum L. poison ryegrass   a     a                        
Grass or Grasslike Agrostis gigantea Roth redtop                             c    
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Grass or Grasslike Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees weeping lovegrass                     c       c b  
Grass or Grasslike Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash ex Small vetivergrass                               b  
Grass or Grasslike Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.) R. Webster guineagrass                       b          
Grass or Grasslike Urochloa mutica (Forsk.) T.Q. Nguyen paragrass                       a          
Hardwood Trees Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl camphortree                       a       a  
Hardwood Trees Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake melaleuca a       a a a         a         a
Hardwood Trees Acer platanoides L. Norway maple                             b    
Hardwood Trees Ailanthus altissima (P. Mill.) Swingle tree-of-heaven         b               a a c a a
Hardwood Trees Albizia julibrissin Durazz. mimosa                   a b a a b b a a
Hardwood Trees Melia azedarach L. chinaberry                   b b a c   b   a
Hardwood Trees Casuarina equisetifolia L. Australian-pine                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. trumpet-tree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth kiawe a                                
Hardwood Trees Ulmus pumila L. Siberian elm                             c    
Hardwood Trees Phoenix reclinata Jacq. Senegal date palm                       b          
Hardwood Trees Populus alba L. white poplar                         b b b    
Hardwood Trees Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian peppertree             a         a         b
Hardwood Trees Triadica sebifera (L.) Small Chinese tallowtree     a       a a a a a a       a a
Hardwood Trees Prosopis campestris Griesbach algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis alpataco R. A. Philippi alapataco a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis velutina Woot. velvet mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis argentina Burkart algarobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis burkartii Muñoz mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis caldenia Burkart calden a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis calingastana Burkart cusqui a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis denudans Bentham algarrobo patagonica a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis elata (Burkart) Burkart algarrobillo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ferox Griesbach churqui a                                
Hardwood Trees Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud. princesstree                   b b   a b b   a
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruizlealii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis farcta (Banks & Soland.) J.F. Macbr. Syrian mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis ruscifolia Griesbach vinal a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis sericantha Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. albardon a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis castellanosii Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Alstonia macrophylla Wallich ex G. Don deviltree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Prosopis torquata (Cavan. ex Lagasca y Segura) DC. lata a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis fiebrigii Harms mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis hassleri Harms ex Hassler algarrobo paraguayo a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis humilis Gillies ex Hooker & Arnott algarrobilla a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis palmeri S. Watson palo de hierro a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis kuntzei Harms ex Hassler barbe de tigre a                                
Hardwood Trees Prosopis rojasiana Burkart mesquite a                                
Hardwood Trees Ardisia elliptica Thunb shoebutton ardisia                       a          
Hardwood Trees Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth woman's tongue tree                       a          
Hardwood Trees Adenanthera pavonina L red beadtree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Bischofia javanica Blume Javanese bishopwood                       a          
Hardwood Trees Calophyllum antillanum Britt Antilles calophyllum                       a          
Hardwood Trees Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. river sheoak                       b         b
Hardwood Trees Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. paper-mulberry                       b c        
Hardwood Trees Cestrum diurnum L. day jessamine                       b          
Hardwood Trees Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng gray sheoak                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Asian nakedwood                       a          
Hardwood Trees Cupaniopsis anacardioides (A. Rich.) Radlk. carrotwood             a         a         b
Hardwood Trees Koelreuteria elegans ssp. formosana (Hayata) F.G. Mey. flamegold                       b          
Hardwood Trees Ficus altissima Blume council tree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Livistona chinensis (Jacq.) R. Br. ex Mart. fountain palm                       b          
Hardwood Trees Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit white leadtree                       b          
Hardwood Trees Ochrosia elliptica Labill. elliptic yellowwood                       b          
Hardwood Trees Morus alba L. white mulberry                           b c    
Hardwood Trees Murraya exotica L. Chinese box                       b          
Hardwood Trees Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Java plum                       a          
Hardwood Trees Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) H.A.T. Harms octopus tree                       a         b
Hardwood Trees Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. rose myrtle             a         a       a b
Hardwood Trees Ptychosperma elegans (R. Br.) Blume ptychosperma                       b          
Hardwood Trees Quercus acutissima Carruthers sawtooth oak                             b    
Hardwood Trees Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) Airy-Shaw tungoil tree                       a          
Hardwood Trees Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston Malabar plum                       b          
Hardwood Trees Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Correa portia tree                       a          
Hardwood Trees Citrus reticulata Blanco tangerine         a                        
Hardwood Trees Cordia dichotoma G. Forst. fragrant manjack                       b          
Hardwood Trees Prosopis spp. L. mesquite         a a a                    
Hardwood Trees Pyrus calleryana Decne. Callery pear (Bradford pear)                     c            
Hardwood Trees Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC. Indian rosewood                       b          
Hardwood Trees Manilkara zapota (L.) van Royen sapodilla                       a          
Hardwood Trees Terminalia muelleri Benth. Australian almond                       b          
Hardwood Trees Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret Seifriz's chamaedorea                                
Hardwood Trees Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.                     c            
Palms Arecastrum romanzoffianum (Cham.) Becc.                                
Shrub or Subshrub Ardisia crenata Sims coral ardisia                       a       b b
Shrub or Subshrub Solanum viarum Dunal tropical soda apple a   a   a a a a a b b a a     a a
Shrub or Subshrub Berberis thunbergii DC. Japanese barberry                         b b b a  
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder Amur honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera morrowii Gray Morrow's honeysuckle                         a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera tatarica L. Tatarian honeysuckle                         a a b a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ludwigia uruguayensis Camb.) Hara Uruguay waterprimrose         a b                      
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera fragrantissima Lindl. & Paxton sweet breath of spring                     c   a   c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Lantana camara L. largeleaf lantana                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. shrubby lespedeza                   b b   b b c   a
Shrub or Subshrub Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours.) G. Don sericea lespedeza                   b c   a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum japonicum Thunb. Japanese privet                     a   b     a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum sinense Lour. Chinese privet               a a a a a a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum vulgare L. European privet                         a a   a a
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. autumn olive                   a a   a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Russian olive                     a   c   c b a
Shrub or Subshrub Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. winged burning bush                     c   b a c   a
Shrub or Subshrub Nandina domestica Thunb. sacred bamboo                   b b a b     b a
Shrub or Subshrub Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link Scotch broom                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Spiraea japonica L. f. Japanese spiraea                         a b b b  
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa multiflora Thunb. multiflora rose       c         a b a   a a c a a
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim. wine raspberry                         c   c    
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix spp. L. tamarisk                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Elaeagnus pungens Thunb. thorny olive                     a b a   c b a
Shrub or Subshrub Lycium ferocissimum Miers African boxthorn a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa pigra L. catclaw mimosa a       a a a         a       b  
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa bracteata J.C. Wendl. Macartney rose                 a               a
Shrub or Subshrub Opuntia aurantiaca Lindley jointed prickly pear a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Melastoma malabathricum L. Banks melastoma a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus fruticosus L. European blackberry a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Rubus moluccanus L. Molucca raspberry a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis strombulifera (Lamarck) Bentham Argentine screwbean a                                
Shrub or Subshrub Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunningham ex Benth. earleaf acacia                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Alhagi maurorum Medik camelthorn                                  
Shrub or Subshrub Asparagus aethiopicus L. Sprenger's asparagus fern                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Mimosa diplotricha C. Wright ex Sauvalle giant sensitiveplant a       a a a                    
Shrub or Subshrub Bauhinia variegata L mountain ebony                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers. cathedral bells                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum lucidum W.T. Aiton glossy privet                       a       a  
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera x bella Zabel [morrowii × tatarica] showy fly honeysuckle, Bell's honeysuckle                         a   c    
Shrub or Subshrub Ipomoea carnea ssp. fistulosa (Mart. ex Choisy) D. Austin gloria de la manana                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Ficus microcarpus Vahl.                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Flueggea acidoton (L.) G.L. Webster simpleleaf bushweed                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Flacourtia indica (Burm. f.) Merr governor's plum                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Hiptage benghalensis (L.) Kurz hiptage                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Talipariti tiliaceum var. tiliaceum L. sea hibiscus                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Eugenia uniflora L. Surinam cherry                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Ricinus communis L. castorbean                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Scaevola taccada Vahl beach naupaka                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Sesbania punicea (Cav.) Benth. red sesbania                   b   b          
Shrub or Subshrub Prosopis reptans var. cinerascens (A. Gray) Burkart tornillo a                                
Shrub or Subshrub Ruellia simplex C. Wright Britton's wild petunia                       a          
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium cattleianum Sabine strawberry guava                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Psidium guajava L. guava                       a         b
Shrub or Subshrub Viburnum dilatatum Thunb. linden viburnum                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Vitex rotundifolia L. f. beach vitex                     b            
Shrub or Subshrub Fallopia baldschuanica (Regel) Holub Chinese fleecevine                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia bealei (Fortune) Carr. leatherleaf mahonia                     b   b        
Shrub or Subshrub Tamarix gallica L. French tamarisk                   b              
Shrub or Subshrub Terminalia catappa L. tropical almond                       b          
Shrub or Subshrub Ligustrum obtusifolium Sieb. & Zucc. border privet                             b    
Shrub or Subshrub Lonicera standishii Jacques Standish's honeysuckle                             c    
Shrub or Subshrub Rosa laevigata Michx. Cherokee rose                 a               a
Shrub or Subshrub Firmiana simplex (L.) W. Wight Chinese parasoltree                     c            
Shrub or Subshrub Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt Oregon grape                     b            
Vines Syngonium podophyllum Schott American evergreen                       a          
Vines Solanum dulcamara L. bittersweet nightshade                           a      
Vines Tribulus cistoides L. Jamaica feverplant                       b          
Vines Akebia quinata (Houtt.) Dcne. chocolate vine                           b b    
Vines Humulus japonicus Siebold & Zucc. Japanese hop                             b    
Vines Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth tall morningglory                           b b    
Vines Ipomoea spp. L. morningglory   a                              
Vines Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Irwin & Barneby valamuerto                       a          
Vines Sphagneticola trilobata (L.C. Rich.) Pruski Bay Biscayne creeping-oxeye                       b          
Vines Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle Spanish arborvine                       b          
Vines Passiflora biflora Lam. twoflower passionflower                       b          
Vines Paederia cruddasiana Prain sewer vine             a         a         b
Vines Passiflora foetida L. redfruit passionflower                       b          
Vines Cardiospermum halicacabum L. balloonvine   a   c a               c   b    
Vines Calystegia sepium ssp. sepium (L.) R. Br. hedge false bindweed   a                              
Vines Cryptostegia madagascariensis Bojer ex Dcne. Madagascar rubbervine                       b          
Vines Cuscuta potosina Schaffn globe dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta potosina var. globifera Yunck. globe dodder a                                
Vines Cuscuta japonica Choisy Japanese dodder a                   c            
Vines Cuscuta megalocarpa Rydb bigfruit dodder a                                
Vines Clematis terniflora DC sweet autumn virginsbower                     c   b        
Vines Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl centipede tongavine                       b          
Vines Dioscorea alata L. winged yam             a         a       a a
Vines Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. swamp morningglory a       a a           a          
Vines Ipomoea coccinea L. red morningglory                             c    
Vines Ipomoea lacunosa L. pitted morningglory                           c      
Vines Ipomoea triloba L. threelobe morningglory         a   a         a          
Vines Jasminum dichotomum Vahl Gold Coast jasmine                       a          
Vines Jasminum fluminense Vell. Brazilian jasmine                       a          
Vines Jasminum sambac (L.) Ait. Arabian jasmine                       b          
Vines Aristolochia elegans Mast. elegant dutchman's pipe                       b          
Vines Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn. coral vine                       b          
Vines Begonia cucullata Willd clubed begonia                       b          
Vines Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders Chinese violet                       b          
Vines Abrus precatorius L. rosarypea                       a         b
Vines Mikania micrantha Kunth mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Vines Mikania cordata (Burm. f.) B.L. Robins. African mile-a-minute a       a a a                    
Vines Cuscuta spp. L. dodder a a     a a a                    
Vines Dioscorea polystachya Turcz. Chinese yam                     c   a a c a a
Vines Vinca major L. big periwinkle                     c       c   a
Vines Solanum tampicense Dunal wetland nightshade a       a a a         a          
Vines Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed   a                       c b    
Vines Tribulus terrestris L. puncturevine           b             c        
Vines Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross mile-a-minute vine       a c a                 c b  
Vines Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A.H. Gentry catclaw-vine                       a       b b
Vines Wisteria floribunda (Willd.) DC. Japanese wisteria                     a   b   c b a
Vines Wisteria sinensis (Sims) DC. Chinese wisteria                   a a b b   b b a
Vines Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. ivyleaf morningglory                           b b    
Vines Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. ex Murr.) Sw. Japanese climbing fern       b     a   a b b a       a a
Vines Lygodium microphyllum (Cav.) R. Br. old world climbing fern       a     a         a       a b
Vines Euonymus fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Maz. winter creeper                   b c   a a b a a
Vines Paederia foetida L. skunk-vine       b     a         a       a  
Vines Hedera helix L. English ivy                   b b   a b b b a
Vines Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese honeysuckle               a   a a a a a c a a
Vines Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Maxim.) Trautv. porcelain-berry                             c b  
Vines Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. oriental bittersweet           c         c   a a c a a
Vines Dioscorea bulbifera L. air-potato       a     a         a       a a
Vines Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida kudzu     a       a a a a a a a a c a a


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The University of Georgia - Warnell School of Forest Resources and
College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences - Dept. of Entomology
Last updated on Saturday, March 07, 2009 at 04:40 PM
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