beech bark canker
Neonectria coccinea var. faginata (Pers.:Fr.) Fr. Var. Lohman, A. M. Watson, & Ayers


Neonectria coccinea var. faginata or Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus "complex" that kills or injures American beech. Disease results when a species of Nectria, especially N. coccinea var. faginata, infects the bark of the trunk through feeding wounds made by the scale insects Cryptococcus fagisuga and Xylococculus betulane. Within the range of the disease, few large beeches escape injury. In 1975, the "killing front" was in eastern Pennsylvania and western New York, the disease having spread about 500 miles since it was first detected on the East Coast in 1929. The spread continues westward and southward. It is believed from genetic analysis that this disease is native to Europe.
Signs and Symptoms
The beech scale, C. fagisuga, usually infests trees more than 8 inches in diameter, but it is also found on smaller trees. An individual C. fagisuga is tiny, but the insect secretes a white, woolly wax covering that can be seen easily. The insect may cluster in cracks or under branches, or may cover the entire trunk. The scale reproduces asexually (no males are known). Eggs hatch in late summer, and the larvae crawl and disperse. Wind and perching birds help to spread the insects. During winter the scales lose their legs, secrete their protective covering, and pierce the bark to feed. Thereafter they do not move. The insects can no longer live where the fungus has killed the bark. The asexual stage of Nectria produces a cushion of white spores during wet weather in the summer. These cushions resemble the woolly secretions of C. fagisuga. The small, red fruiting bodies of the sexual stage are found in clusters. They mature in the fall and can be seen best then. Fungal invasion is apparent 3 to 5 years after the scale insects appear. Dark, dead patches are produced where other fungi, such as species of Hypoxylon, enter. Nectria infection points may become walled off with callus tissue, giving the tree a "pock-marked" appearance. Some trees are killed within a year after Nectria is apparent; others linger for several years. The leaves of the latter turn yellow early in the growing season, and the crowns are thin. Trees that survive a first attack may become reinfested and die later. A few trees seem to be resistant to scale infestation.
N. coccinea var. faginata has been introduced and spread through Eastern North America ranging from Canada through the United States as far as North Carolina and Tennessee.
Control Efforts
Thinning and removal of infected or susceptible trees, while retaining resistant trees is a commonly used management strategy. An estimated 1% of American beech trees are resistant to scale insect infestation which means they are resistant to N. coccinea var. faginata. Physical removal of scale insects by scrubbing trees with high pressure water can be effective. Biological controls are being studied.
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Taxonomic Rank

Kingdom: Fungi
Phylum: Ascomycota
Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
Class: Sordariomycetes
Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
Order: Hypocreales
Family: Nectriaceae
Genus: Neonectria
Subject: Neonectria coccinea var. faginata (Pers.:Fr.) Fr. Var. Lohman, A. M. Watson, & Ayers