- Ilex aquifolium is a large evergreen tree or shrub that can grow from 15-50 ft. (4.6-15.2 m) tall. Bark is smooth and can be grey to black in color.
- Leaves are alternate, thick, dark green, glossy, wavy, 1-3 in. (2.5-7.6 cm) long with sharp stout spines.
- Flowers are small, white, fragrant, and found in clusters. The blooming period occurs in late Spring and early summer from May to June.
- The berries are bright red to orange and yellow in color and 0.31 in. (8 mm) across. Each berry contains 4 seeds. Fruit ripens from August to October.
- Ecological Threat
- Ilex aquifolium can grow in shaded or sunny areas and is often found in forests. It is native to south and central Europe.
Joseph M. DiTomaso
EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Regulated List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their regulated list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Invasive Listing Sources
- California Invasive Plant Council
- Faith Campbell, 1998
- Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
- Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
- Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
- Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
- Reichard, Sarah. 1994. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
|Common Name Reference:|| USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|