- Frangula alnus is a large shrub or small tree that can grow to heights of 30 ft. (9.1 m). Its bark is gray to brown with white lenticels.
- The dark green leaves are shiny, alternate (sometime opposite) and simple with prominent venation.
- The flowers are inconspicuous, pale greenish-yellow to yellow in color and occur in clusters in the leaf axis. Flowering occurs from May through September.
- The fleshy fruit ripens from red to a dark purple or black color. You can see ripe fruit beginning about July through September.
- Ecological Threat
- Frangula alnus invades moist woodlands and disturbed areas throughout the Northeast and Midwest. Its rapid growth and prolific seed production make this plant an aggressive invader that can form dense thickets which shade and displace native understory plants, shrubs, and tree seedlings. This plant is native to Europe and was first introduced into the United States in the mid 1800s as an ornamental.
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EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Invasive List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Invasive Listing Sources
- City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
- Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
- Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
- Connecticut Invasive Plant List
- Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
- EDDMapS Ontario
- Faith Campbell, 1998
- Great Lakes Early Detection Network
- Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
- Illinois Exotic Weed Act
- Illinois Invasive Plant List
- Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
- Invasive Plant Council of New York State
- Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
- John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
- Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
- Massachusetts Noxious Weeds
- Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
- Minnesota Noxious Weeds
- New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee. 2005. Guide to Invasive Upland Plant Species in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Agriculture, Markets and Food Plant Industry Division and New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee.
- New Hampshire Prohibited Invasive Species
- New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
- Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems
- Reichard, Sarah. 1994. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
- Rhode Island Natural History Society,
- Tatyana Livschultz, Pennsylvania survey of invasive plants,
- Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
- Vermont Noxious Weeds
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
- Wisconsin's Invasive Species Identification, Classification and Control Rule
|Common Name Reference:|| USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|