- Cynoglossum officinale is a biennial plant that can grow from 8-48 in. (0.2-1.2 m) tall. The first year’s growth is strictly vegetative with flowering occurs the second year.
- The first year, the basal leaves are petiolate, elliptical, dark green and 6-8 in. (15.2-20.3 cm) long. The leaves on the flowering stem are alternate and narrower towards the top of the plant.
- In the early summer, flowers appear in racemes from the axils of the upper leaves. Flowers are reddish-purple with a five-lobed corolla.
- Each flower can produce up to 4 fruits. The fruits are nutlets, the surfaces of which are flat and densely covered with small, barbed hooks (glochidia) that facilitate dispersal by animals.
- Ecological Threat
- Cynoglossum officinale invades disturbed areas, roadsides, rangeland, old fields and meadows, forest margins, riparian zones and coastal sand dunes. It is native to Eurasia.
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EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Invasive List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Invasive Listing Sources
- California Invasive Plant Council
- Colorado Noxious Weeds
- Faith Campbell, 1998
- Great Lakes Early Detection Network
- Idaho Noxious Weeds
- Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
- John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
- Montana Noxious Weeds
- Nevada Noxious Weeds
- Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems
- Oregon Noxious Weeds
- Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
- South Dakota Noxious Weeds
- Washington Noxious Weeds
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
- Wisconsin's Invasive Species Identification, Classification and Control Rule
- Wyoming Noxious Weeds
|Common Name Reference:|| USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|