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EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Invasive List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Invasive Listing Sources
- California Invasive Plant Council
- EDDMapS Ontario
- Faith Campbell, 1998
- John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
- Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
- Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
- Reichard, Sarah. 1994. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
|Common Name Reference:|| Weed Science Society of America Common Names List|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|