black acacia
Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. ex Ait. f.


Overview


Appearance
Acacia melanoxylon is a straight trunked, medium sized tree of the legume family (Fabaceae) with a dense crown. It is a thornless, evergreen tree 26-49 ft. (8-15 m) high. It can occasionally get up to 148 ft. (45 m) tall. Native of rainforest areas in southeastern Australia, it was introduced as a forestry planting to Hawaii, New Zealand, and South Africa. It was introduced to Hawaii as a forestry planting (Nelson and Schubert 1976).
Foliage
The leaves are bipinnate on seedlings. In mature trees coppice shoots usually become phyllodes. Phyllodes on Acacia melanoxylon are about 3-4 in. (7-10 cm) long. Foliage starts out greyish turning dark dull-green as it matures. The leaves are straight to slightly curved, with 3-7 prominent longitudinal veins and fine net-veins between.
Flowers
The pale yellow to whitish colored flowers have a powder puff appearance due to the presence of numerous stamens. Each one ranges from 0.2-0.4 in. (5-10 mm) in diameter. The flower clusters are borne on peduncles from 0.2-0.6 in. (5-14 mm) long. They are alternately arranged and arise from the phyllode axil. Flowering can occur year round.
Fruit
The fruit of Acacia melanoxylon is an elongated, flattened pod approximately 1.6-6 in. (4-15 cm) long and 0.1-0.3 in. (3.5-8 mm) wide. The pods are strongly curved, twisted or coiled. These pods are mostly glabrous with only a slight constriction between each seed. The pods are green and leathery when young, maturing to brown to reddish-brown in color and become woodier. The seeds are elliptic and about 0.1-0.2 in. (3-5 mm) long and 0.07-0.1 in. (1.7-3 mm) wide. Seeds are glossy, black and are encircled by a large pink to dark red aril.
Ecological Threat
Acacia melanoxylon is native to eastern Australia. This tree grows fast and tall, up to 148 ft. (45 m) tall. It tolerates a wide range of conditions and soils but grows better in colder climates. It invades areas such as natural vegetation, commercial timber plantations and farmland.

Selected Images



Maps



EDDMapS Distribution

EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org

State Regulated List

State Regulated List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their regulated list. For more information, visit Invasive.org

Taxonomic Rank


Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)
Genus: Acacia
Subject: Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. ex Ait. f.

Synonyms and Other Names


Other Common Names:
blackwood, Australian blackwood, blackwood, blackwood acacia

Categories


Plants - Hardwood Trees