- Evergreen to semievergreen vines, some-what woody, trailing or scrambling to 3 ft. (1 m) long and upright to 1 ft. (30 cm).
- Foliage is opposite, glossy and hairless, some-what thick, with margins slightly rolled under. Leaves are heart-shaped to somewhat triangular to elliptic, 1.5-2.5 in. (4-6 cm) long and 1-1.5 in. (2.5-4 cm) wide, with petioles 0.2-0.4 in. (5-10 mm) long.
- Violet to blue lavender (to white), with five petals radiating pinwheel-like at right angles from the floral tube. Flowers from 1.5-2 in. (4-5 cm) wide with a 0.6-0.8 in. (1.5-2 cm) long tube. Five sepals long lanceo-late, about 0.4 in. (1 cm), hairy margined. Blooms April to May, then sporadically to September.
- Slender, cylindrical fruit up to 2 in. (5 cm) long. Splitting when dry to release three to five seeds.
- Ecological Threat
- Found around old homesites and scattered in open to dense canopied forests. Forms mats and extensive infestations even under forest canopies by vines rooting at nodes. Introduced from Europe in 1700s. Ornamental ground cover, commonly sold and planted by gardeners.
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EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Invasive List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Invasive Listing Sources
- California Invasive Plant Council
- Faith Campbell, 1998
- Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council - Category 2
- Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
- John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
- Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
- Native Plant Society of Oregon, 2008
- Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems
- North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1998
- Reichard, Sarah. 1994. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
- South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat
- Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
- Virginia Invasive Plant Species List
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
|Common Name Reference:|| Weed Science Society of America Common Names List|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|