yellow toadflax
Linaria vulgaris P. Mill.


Linaria vulgaris is a perennial herb that can reach 3.3 ft. (1 m) tall with erect, smooth stems that emerge in clumps from a spreading root system.
Leaves are nearly sessile, drooping, linear and 1-2 in. (2.5-5 cm) long. Leaves can sometimes be sparsely covered by long hairs.
Flowering occurs from May to September, when yellow/white, snapdragon-like flowers develop. Flowers, including the spur, are 0.6-1.2 in. (1.5-3 cm) long and occur in racemes at the apex of the stems.
Fruits are capsules that are 0.4-0.5 in. (9-12 mm) long. Each capsule contains small, flat blackish seeds with a papery wing.
Ecological Threat
Linaria vulgaris occurs in fields, pastures, roadsides, undisturbed prairies and rangelands. It is native to Europe and was introduced into North America, as an ornamental, in the mid 1600s.


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EDDMapS Distribution

EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit

State Regulated List

State Regulated List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their regulated list. For more information, visit

Taxonomic Rank

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Scrophulariales
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Genus: Linaria
Subject: Linaria vulgaris P. Mill.

Synonyms and Other Names

Other Common Names:
butter and eggs, Jacob's ladder, wild snapdragon


Plants - Forbs/Herbs