- Euphorbia esula is an erect, perennial, herbaceous plant that grows from 2-3.5 ft. (0.6-1.1 m) tall. The stem is smooth and bluish-green. The plant produces a milky sap if stem is broken or a leaf is removed.
- Leaves are lance shaped, smooth and 1-4 in. (2.5-10.2 cm) long. They are arranged alternately along the stem, becoming shorter and more ovate towards the top of the stem.
- Flowering occurs in June, when yellow flowers develop in clusters at the apex of the plant.
- Fruits are 3 lobed capsules that explode when mature, propelling brown mottled ovoid seeds up to 15 ft. (4.6 m) away.
- Ecological Threat
- Large infestations of Euphorbia esula give the landscape a yellowish tinge due to the yellow bracts. Leafy spurge invades prairies, pastures, and other open areas. It is a major pest of national parks and nature preserves in the western United States. It can completely overtake large areas of land and displace native vegetation. This plant is native to Europe and was introduced accidentally into North America in the early 1800s as a seed contaminate.
- Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States - USDA Forest Service
- Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas - Plant Conservation Alliance
- Element Stewardship Abstract - The Nature Conservancy
- Invasive Plant Atlas of New England - University of Connecticut
- Federal Noxious Weed Disseminules of the U.S. - USDA-APHIS
- Weed of the Week - USDA Forest Service
- Weed Field Guide - USDA Forest Service
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EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Invasive List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Invasive Listing Sources
- Alaska Noxious Weeds
- Arizona Noxious Weeds
- California Invasive Plant Council
- California Noxious Weeds
- City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
- Colorado Noxious Weeds
- Connecticut Invasive Plant List
- Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
- EDDMapS Ontario
- Faith Campbell, 1998
- Great Lakes Early Detection Network
- Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
- Idaho Noxious Weeds
- Illinois Invasive Plant List
- Iowa Noxious Weeds
- Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
- John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
- Kansas Noxious Weeds
- Massachusetts Noxious Weeds
- Michigan Noxious Weeds
- Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
- Minnesota Noxious Weeds
- Montana Noxious Weeds
- National Wildlife Refuge Association, Silent Invasion: A Call to Action from the National Wildlife Refuge Association, 2002. Washington DC. 17 pp.
- Nebraska Noxious Weeds
- Nevada Noxious Weeds
- New Hampshire Restricted Invasive Species
- New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
- New Mexico Noxious Weeds
- Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems
- North Dakota Noxious Weeds
- Oregon Noxious Weeds
- Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
- South Dakota Noxious Weeds
- Utah Noxious Weeds
- Washington Noxious Weeds
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
- Wisconsin Noxious Weeds
- Wisconsin's Invasive Species Identification, Classification and Control Rule
- Wyoming Noxious Weeds
Other System LinksPlants: EUES
NPDN Pest: PBVAGBE
NPDN Host: 36377
|Common Name Reference:|| USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|