BugwoodWiki Article

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica L.

Overview

Appearance
Rhamnus cathartica is a deciduous shrub or small tree that can grow to 25 ft. (7.6 m) in height. The bark is dark gray and the inner bark is orange (easily seen when the tree is cut). Twigs are usually tipped with a sharp spine.
Foliage
The leaf arrangement is usually sub-opposite, but examples of opposite and/or alternate arrangements are commonly found. Leaves are dark green, oval, 1.5-3 in. (3.8-7.6 cm) long, slightly serrate with 3 to 4 pairs of curving veins and a somewhat folded tip.
Flowers
Flowering occurs in the spring, with fragrant, yellow-green, 4-petaled flowers developing in clusters of 2 to 6 near the base of the petioles. Plants are dioecious (male and female flowers occur on separate plants).
Fruit
Appearing in the fall, the small, purple to black fruit are 0.25 in. (0.6 cm) in diameter. The fruit contains 3-4 seeds. Birds and other wildlife eat the fruit and disperse the seeds.
Ecological Threat
Rhamnus cathartica invades forests, prairies, and savannas in the Midwestern United States and can form dense thickets crowding out native shrubs and understory plants. It is difficult to remove and can regenerate after cutting or burning. It is a native of Europe and was introduced into the United States as an ornamental shrub.

Resources

Selected Images


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1480381

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Tree(s)
Richard Webb
0008184
0008184

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Fruit(s)
Paul Wray
0008306
0008306

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Foliage
Paul Wray
5456128
5456128

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Flower(s)
Leslie J. Mehrhoff
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5341026

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Fruit(s)
Jan Samanek
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5468291

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Fruit(s)
Steven Katovich
5274025
5274025

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Flower(s)
Leslie J. Mehrhoff
1330018
1330018

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Flower(s)
Chris Evans
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1330020

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Foliage
Chris Evans
1334006
1334006

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Foliage
Chris Evans
1334007
1334007

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Feature(s)
Chris Evans
1334023
1334023

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Twig(s)/Shoot(s)
Chris Evans
1334005
1334005

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Infestation
Chris Evans
0008477
0008477

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Feature(s)
Paul Wray
5308069
5308069

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Plant(s)
USDA PLANTS Database
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5308071

European buckthorn
Rhamnus cathartica
Seed(s)
Steve Hurst

Maps


EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org

EDDMapS Distribution

State Regulated List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their regulated list. For more information, visit Invasive.org

State Regulated List

Invasive Listing Sources

Taxonomic Rank

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Rhamnales
Family: Rhamnaceae
Genus: Rhamnus

Other System Links

Plants: RHCA3
Bayer: RHACT
GRIN: 31018
ITIS: 28573
NPDN Pest: PEJAGBC
NPDN Host: 34032

Synonyms and Other Names

Other Common Names:
common buckthorn, European buckthorn

Categories

Category: Shrub or Subshrub
Category: Hardwood Trees