lesser celandine, fig buttercup
Ficaria verna Huds.


Ficaria verna is a short (up to 12 in. [30.5 cm]), herbaceous perennial that invades forests throughout the East, Midwest and Pacific Northwest regions of the United States.
The basal leaves are dark green, shiny, kidney- to heart-shaped and vary greatly in size.
Flowering occurs in March and April, when showy, bright yellow, eight-petaled flowers develop on stalks above the leaves. Flowers are up to 3 in. (7.6 cm) wide.
The fruit are achenes that are pubescent. It also reproduces with bulblets and tubers.
Ecological Threat
Ficaria verna invades moist, forested floodplains. It is a spring ephemeral and grows vigorously, creating dense mats that exclude all other vegetation. It is a threat particularly to the native forest spring ephemerals that have to compete for light and space with this invasive. The plant is native to Europe and was first introduced into the United States as an ornamental. It is currently sold and widely planted as an ornamental.


Selected Images


EDDMapS Distribution

EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org

State Regulated List

State Regulated List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their regulated list. For more information, visit Invasive.org

Taxonomic Rank

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Magnoliidae
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Ranunculaceae
Genus: Ficaria
Subject: Ficaria verna Huds.

Synonyms and Other Names

Other Common Names:
lesser celandine, pilewort

Related Scientific Names:
Ranunculus ficaria L. (Synonym)


Plants - Forbs/Herbs


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