- Phragmites australis is a tall, perennial grass that can grow to heights of 15 ft. (4.6 m) or more. Broad, pointed leaves arise from thick, vertical stalks.
- Leaves are 6-23.6 in. (15-60 cm) long, 0.4-2.4 in. (1-6 cm) wide, flat and glabrous.
- The flower heads are dense, fluffy, gray or purple in color and 5.9-15.7 in. (15-40 cm) long. Flowering occurs from July to October.
- The seeds are brown, light weight, and about 0.3 in. (8 mm) long. In the fall the plant turns brown, and the inflorescences persist throughout the winter.
- Ecological Threat
- Phragmites australis is usually found in dense thickets growing in or near shallow water. These thickets displace native wetlands plants, alter hydrology and block sunlight to the aquatic community. It is native to Eurasia and Africa. Native Phragmites do occur in the United States and they are sometimes very difficult to distinguish from the exotics.
- Phragmites Field Guide: Distinguishing Native and Exotic Forms of Common Reed in the U.S. - Plant Conservation Alliance
- A Guide to the Control and Management of Invasive Phragmites - Michigan Department of Natural Resources
- Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States - USDA Forest Service
- Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas - Plant Conservation Alliance
- Element Stewardship Abstract - The Nature Conservancy
- Invasive Plant Atlas of New England - University of Connecticut
- Morphological differences between native and introduced genotypes - Cornell University
- Weed of the Week - USDA Forest Service
- Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas - National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
- Best Management Practices - Ontarios Invading Species Awareness Program
- Fact Sheet - Ontarios Invading Species Awareness Program
- Field Guide - Ontarios Invading Species Awareness Program
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EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Invasive List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Most Troublesome / Most Common Agricultural Weed List
This map identifies those states that consider this species either most troublesome or most common in at least one commodity. For more information, visit the MTMC project page.
|No Data for this state|
|Troublesome or Common weed in one or more crops|
Invasive Listing Sources
- Alabama Invasive Plant Council
- Alabama Noxious Weeds - Class C Noxious Weed
- Apalachicola Invasive Working Group
- City of Ann Arbor Michigan Parks and Recreation
- Colorado Noxious Weeds
- Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, 1994.
- Connecticut Invasive Plant List
- Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group
- East Central Florida CISMA
- Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council - Category 3
- Great Lakes Early Detection Network
- Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
- Idaho Noxious Weeds
- Illinois Invasive Plant List
- Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society
- Invasive Plant Council of New York State
- Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
- Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat
- Maryland Cooperative Extension Service. 2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
- Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
- Massachusetts Noxious Weeds
- Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
- National Wildlife Refuge Association, Silent Invasion: A Call to Action from the National Wildlife Refuge Association, 2002. Washington DC. 17 pp.
- Nebraska Noxious Weeds
- New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee. 2005. Guide to Invasive Upland Plant Species in New Hampshire. New Hampshire Department of Agriculture, Markets and Food Plant Industry Division and New Hampshire Invasive Species Committee.
- New Hampshire Prohibited Aquatic Species
- New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
- Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems
- North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1998
- Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
- South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat
- South Carolina Noxious Weeds
- South Dakota Noxious Weeds
- Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
- Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation
- Vermont Noxious Weeds
- Washington Noxious Weeds
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
- Wisconsin's Invasive Species Identification, Classification and Control Rule
Other System LinksPlants: PHAU7
NPDN Pest: PCACJBA
NPDN Host: 36226
|Common Name Reference:|| USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|