- Hedera helix is an evergreen perennial climbing vine that attaches to bark of trees, brickwork and other surfaces by root-like structures that exude a glue-like substance to aid in adherence.
- Leaves are alternate, dark green, waxy, somewhat leathery; extremely variable leaf forms, from unlobed to 3-5 lobed; typically green with whitish veins.
- Flowering occurs in late summer to early fall, typically under full sun conditions; flowers are small, greenish-yellow and occur in globular starburst type inflorescence at tips of flowering stems.
- Fruits are black with a fleshy outer layer and stone-like seeds. New plants grow easily from cuttings or stem fragments that make contact with the soil.
- Ecological Threat
- Hedera helix is an aggressive invader threatening all levels of forested and open areas, growing along the ground as well as into the forest canopy. Vines climb up tree trunks and envelop branches and twigs, blocking sunlight from the host tree’s foliage, impeding photosynthesis. An infested tree will exhibit decline for years before it dies. The weight of vines also makes trees susceptible to blowing over in storms. This plant has been confirmed as a reservoir for bacterial leaf scorch (Xylella fastidiosa), which affects a wide variety of trees.
- Nonnative Invasive Plants of Southern Forests - USDA Forest Service
- Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council Invasive Plant Manual - SE-EPPC
- Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas - Plant Conservation Alliance
- Weed of the Week - USDA Forest Service
- Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas - National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
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EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit www.eddmaps.org
State Invasive List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their invasive species list. For more information, visit Invasive.org
Invasive Listing Sources
- Alabama Invasive Plant Council
- Alachua County Cogongrass Initiative
- California Invasive Plant Council
- Delaware Natural Resources and Environmental Control, 2004
- Faith Campbell, 1998
- Georgia Exotic Pest Plant Council - Category 1
- Great Lakes Early Detection Network
- Hoffman, R. & K. Kearns, Eds. 1997. Wisconsin manual of control recommendations for ecologically invasive plants. Wisconsin Dept. Natural Resources, Bureau of Endangered Resources. Madison, Wisconsin. 102pp.
- Illinois Invasive Plant List
- Jil M. Swearingen, Survey of invasive plants occurring on National Park Service lands, 2000-2007
- John Randall, The Nature Conservancy, Survey of TNC Preserves, 1995.
- Kentucky Exotic Pest Plant Council - Significant Threat
- Maryland Cooperative Extension Service. 2003. Invasive Plant Control in Maryland. Home and Garden Information Center, Home and Garden Mimeo HG88. 4 pp.
- Maryland Department of Natural Resources, 1994
- Mid-Atlantic Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2005
- New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry, 2004
- Nonnative Invasive Species in Southern Forest and Grassland Ecosystems
- North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, 1998
- Pacific Northwest Exotic Pest Plant Council, 1998
- Pennypack Ecological Restoration Trust, Pennsylvania.
- Reichard, Sarah. 1994. Assessing the potential of invasiveness in woody plants introduced in North America. University of Washington Ph.D. dissertation.
- Rhode Island Natural History Society,
- South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council - Severe Threat
- Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council
- Virginia Invasive Plant Species List
- Washington Noxious Weeds
- WeedUS - Database of Plants Invading Natural Areas in the United States
Other System LinksPlants: HEHE
NPDN Pest: PALACBA
NPDN Host: 34052
|Common Name Reference:|| USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|
|Scientific Name Reference:||USDA, NRCS. 2010. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.|