garlic mustard
Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande


Alliaria petiolata is an herbaceous, biennial forb. First year plants are basal rosettes which bolt and flower in the second year. Plants can be easily recognized by a garlic odor that is present when any part of the plant is crushed.
Foliage on first year rosettes is green, heart shaped, 1-6 in. (2.5-15.2 cm) long leaves. Foliage becomes more triangular and strongly toothed as the plant matures.
Second year plants produce a 1-4 ft. (0.3-1.2 m) tall flowering stalk. Each flower has four small, white petals in the early spring.
Mature seeds are shiny black and produced in erect, slender green pods which turn pale brown when mature.
Ecological Threat
Alliaria petiolata is an aggressive invader of wooded areas throughout the eastern and middle United States. A high shade tolerance allows this plant to invade high quality, mature woodlands, where it can form dense stands. These stands not only shade out native understory flora but also produce allelopathic compounds that inhibit seed germination of other species. Alliaria petiolata is native to Europe and was first introduced during the 1800s for medicinal and culinary purposes.


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EDDMapS Distribution

EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit

State Regulated List

State Regulated List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their regulated list. For more information, visit

Invasive Listing Sources

Taxonomic Rank

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Dilleniidae
Order: Capparales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Alliaria
Subject: Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande

Synonyms and Other Names

Other Common Names:
garlic-mustard, hedge garlic, sauce-alone, jack-by-the hedge, poor man's mustard, jack-n-the-bush, garlic root, garlicwort, mustard root

Related Scientific Names:
Alliaria alliaria (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (Synonym)
Alliaria officinalis (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (Synonym)
Erysimum alliaria (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (Synonym)
Sisymbrium alliaria (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (Synonym)


Plants - Forbs/Herbs