BugwoodWiki Article

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, 1868

Overview

Origin
Dendroctonus frontalis is native to the Americas.
Life Cycle
The duration from egg to adult stages ranges from 26 to 54 days, depending upon the season. The beetles may have as few as three generations in Virginia and as many as seven generations in Texas. The beetles overwinter inside trees at all stages. In the spring when the dogwoods bloom, adults begin to fly. Females land on host trees, 6.6-29.5 ft. (2-9 m) off the ground, bore through the bark, and if successful, produce a pheromone that attracts males and females together to attack the tree en mass. Females begin building egg galleries. Mating takes place in the gallery followed by female egg laying. The eggs hatch into small larvae within 4 to 9 days. The larvae mine for a short distance before boring into the outer bark where they pupate. Adults can re-emerge from galleries and attack new trees. Often within an infestation fresh attacked trees serve as a center of attraction. Usually as the infestation grows, adjacent trees succumb to attack, resulting in a group of trees producing pheromones. Therefore, infestations often move in one or more directions.
Distribution
Dendroctonus frontalis, the southern pine beetle (SPB) is one of the most destructive pests of pines in the southern United States, Mexico, and Central America. It occurs in the southern and southeastern United States, extending as far west as Arizona and as far south as Central America. The northern range extends from southern New Jersey and Pennsylvania, west to southern Missouri, south to east Texas, and east into Florida. Generally, this insect occurs wherever Shortleaf and Loblolly Pines are grown.
Control Efforts
Prevention is the best form of control. Forest stands should be thinned two to three times during the rotation. Thinned stands keep trees healthy and vigorous. Overmature stands are most susceptible to attack. Therefore, harvesting trees at rotation age should be followed. Integrated pest management may be achieved through any one or all of the following suppression techniques: rapid salvage and utilization of infested trees, piling and burning of infested materials, chemical control in high value resources, and cut-and-leave (May through October). Good forest management is the most effective method of preventing losses from the southern pine beetle.

Selected Images


2162006
2162006

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Adult(s)
Pest and Diseases Image Library
5289047
5289047

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Pupa(e)
Erich G. Vallery
1247036
1247036

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Galleries
Terry S. Price
0745081
0745081

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Damage
Erich G. Vallery
1541732
1541732

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Pupa(e)
Lacy L. Hyche
1236122
1236122

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Galleries
Clemson University - USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series
1669048
1669048

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Adult(s)
Southern Forest Insect Work Conference Archive
2108092
2108092

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Infestation
Ronald F. Billings
2161030
2161030

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Adult(s)
Pest and Diseases Image Library
2161038
2161038

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Feature(s)
Pest and Diseases Image Library
2516004
2516004

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Adult(s)
David T. Almquist
0745072
0745072

southern pine beetle
Dendroctonus frontalis
Adult(s)
Erich G. Vallery

Taxonomic Rank

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Atelocerata
Class: Hexapoda (including Insecta)
Infraclass: Neoptera
Subclass: Pterygota
Order: Coleoptera
Suborder: Polyphaga
Infraorder: Cucujiformia
Superfamily: Curculionoidea
Family: Curculionidae
Subfamily: Scolytinae
Tribe: Hylesinini: Tomicina
Genus: Dendroctonus

Other System Links

ITIS: 114914
NPDN Pest: INBQAOA