common hempnettle
Galeopsis tetrahit L.


Galeopsis tetrahit is an herbaceous annual that grows to be 1-3 ft (0.3-0.9 m) tall. The simple to branched stems are square, swollen at leaf nodes, and covered with coarse, downward pointing hairs intermixed with shorter glandular hairs. It is native to Europe.
The opposite leaves are from 1-5 in (2.5-12.7) long. They are simple, short-petioled, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, and sparsely pubescent on both sides.
The flowers are borne in terminal clusters or axillary clusters. They can vary in color from purple to pink to white, are 0.5-0.75 in (1.3-1.9 cm) long and bilaterally symmetrical.
The egg-shaped seeds are mottled and grayish brown.
Ecological Threat
G. tetrahit invades roadsides, open woods, pastures, and fields. It can create monocultures especially in disturbed areas. It is avoided by most grazers and is considered an agricultural weed. G. tetrahit is the host for potato fungus and several nematodes.

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EDDMapS Distribution

EDDMapS Distribution - This map is incomplete and is based only on current site and county level reports made by experts, herbaria, and literature. For more information, visit

State Regulated List

State Regulated List - This map identifies those states that list this species on their regulated list. For more information, visit

Taxonomic Rank

Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Galeopsis
Subject: Galeopsis tetrahit L.

Synonyms and Other Names

Other Common Names:
brittlestem hempnettle


Plants - Forbs/Herbs