citrus canker
Xanthomonas citri (ex Hasse 1915) Gabriel et al. 1989


Xanthomonas citri, Citrus canker is a very contagious bacterial disease that affects all types of citrus. It is believed that X. citri originated in Southeast Asia
Signs and Symptoms
X. citri causes premature leaf and fruit drop. Symptoms include lesions on the fruit, foliage and twigs and usually appear from 1-2 weeks after infection. The entire tree can be defoliated. X. citri effects on fruit range from severe blemishes on the fruit to premature fruit drop.
X. citri was spread to Japan, South Africa, Australia, the Pacific Islands, South America, and the United States. The hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 spread X. citri so far that eradication was no longer feasible in the United States.
Control Efforts
Control of X. citri is achieved through a combination of tactics. These include the use of disease resistant plant varieties, use of protective sprays, and phytosanitary measures. State quarantines may help slow further spread of X. citri until studies can be done to determine the most effective management plans.


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