||Natural regeneration on old quarry workings. A pioneer species establishing and succeeding in a hostile environment.
||A UK native and a pioneer species but not very long lived. In UK, generally not regarded as a timber tree unless for firewood but it has great ecological value and is an important component of the Western oak woodlands in UK. Image from Braich Melyn, Bethesda, N. Wales. The foxgloves (Digitalis purpurea) in the foreground have benefited from the bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) having been killed off the previous year with herbicide.
||View of old,walled field system. Braich Melyn, Bethesda, N. Wales, UK. Silver birch and Bracken slowly taking over as grazing pressure is reduced on this marginal ground. In time, if grazing was stopped, this view would naturally be dominated by a cyclical dominance of birch and oak.