1. Branchlet with closed (a), developed (b, c), and wilted catkins (d, e), with closed and splitting buds, calyptrate at apex (k). - 2. Branchlet with female catkins in different stages of their development (f - l). - 3. Branchlet with leafy shoots with many seeded fruit capsules recurved toward the apex - when closed (m) and when splitting by two segments (n). Seeds with a tuft of silky hairs. - 4. Mature leafy shoot. Persistent stipules (n) and young buds (k). Leaves often curved at apex, densely pubescent beneath with soft hairs. - 5. Seedling with cotyledons and first ordinary leaves. - 6. Winter-branchlet with bulky fertile buds (k'). After Hempel & Wilhelm, 1889. Photos and explanations from the book: Zelimir Borzan. "Tree and Shrub Names in Latin, Croatian, English, and German, with synonyms", University of Zagreb, 2001.