1. Flowering shoot with long peduncled many flowered male catkins (a - c) and female flowers enclosed by a four lobed scaly cupule (d - f); stipules at n. - 2. Branchlet with developed shoots, closed (a), open (b), and empty cupules (c), as well as fully developed vegetative buds (k). - 3. Ripe, three angled one seeded fruits (nuts). - 4. Seedling with cotyledons (c) and first ordinary leaves opposite in position. - 5. Winter-branchlet with vegetative buds (k). - 6. Branchlet with a spur with series of short internodes terminated by a vegetative bud (k). - 7. Winter-branchlet with fertile-buds (b). After Hempel & Wilhelm, 1889. Photos and explanations from the book: Zelimir Borzan. "Tree and Shrub Names in Latin, Croatian, English, and German, with synonyms", University of Zagreb, 2001.