1. Flowering shoot with male (a - c) catkins, bud-like female (d, e) inflorescences, and vegetative buds (k). - 2. Shoot with mature leaves and developed - yet green - male catkins (a, b) which will stay dormant through winter. - 3. Shoot with ripening fruit clusters surrounded by leafy involucre shorter than nut, and dissected into narrow toothed lobes. - 4. Nuts partially enclosed by incised involucres with lobes longer than nuts (cluster is shown without the leaf the axil of which it develops). - 5. Ripe nut seen from two sides (a, b) - 6. Winter-branchlet with dormant male catkins (m, n). After Hempel & Wilhelm, 1889. Photos and explanations from the book: Zelimir Borzan. "Tree and Shrub Names in Latin, Croatian, English, and German, with synonyms", University of Zagreb, 2001.