Invasive plant and animal species can spread even more quickly through aquatic habitats than they do through terrestrial habitats.
Zebra mussels were accidentally introduced into the Great Lakes in 1988. Since females can lay more than 100,000 eggs a year, they have spread quickly through several river systems into the South. Mussels pile on top of one another, creating thick "mats" and attach themselves to any hard underwater surface, including boats and docks. When mussels attach to hulls, they increase drag, and may even clog boat cooling systems. They are filter feeders and consume freshwater plankton, thereby decreasing food availability for many other aquatic inhabitants.
Grass carp escaped from a fish farming experiment station in Stuttgart, Arkansas in 1966. Although only sterile fish were authorized for release, populations of grass carp are now known in 45 states, with reproductive populations in the Mississippi, Illinois, Missouri and Ohio rivers. They have spread quickly with an average female producing 500,000-700,000 eggs over her lifetime. Grass carp can live more than 10 years and can reach 80 pounds or more. Adults have an insatiable appetite and can consume 40-300% of their body weight in plant material every day. Large populations can clear all plant material from a body of water.
Giant salvinia, Salvinia molesta
Kenneth Calcote, Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce, U.S.A., Bugwood.org
Aquatic vegetation provides habitat for juvenile fishes and invertebrates, as well as acting as a stabilizer for bottom sediments. Loss of habitat means juvenile fishes become easy prey for larger animals, reducing the number of fish reaching harvestable size. Eradication of aquatic vegetation stirs sediment into the water and gives algae the opportunity to increase, causing turbid water.
West Nile virus was first detected in the United States in 1999 and is spread by infected Asian tiger mosquitoes. People that spend time around lakes, ponds or any area with high levels of mosquitoes could be at risk of contracting this virus. Symptoms of West Nile virus usually range from mild and flu-like to no symptoms at all. However, if the virus enters the brain or spinal cord, death can result. There are still no specific vaccines or treatments available for the virus.